Institute of Biotechnology, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Molecular Engineering of National Ministry of Education, Shanxi University, Wucheng Road 92, Taiyuan Shanxi Prov, 030006, Taiyuan, China. Electronic address: [Email]
Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and its derivatives are the common flame-retardants that may increase the risk of development of many types of cancers, including liver cancer. However, the effects of TBBPA in the development and progression of liver cancer remains unknown. This study investigated the potential effects of TBBPA on a metastatic phenotype of hepatocellular carcinoma cell line-HepG2. Our results revealed that TBBPA significantly promoted the migration and invasion via affecting the number and distribution of lysosomes in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, TBBPA decreased the intracellular protein levels of Beta-Hexosaminidase (HEXB), Cathepsin B (CTSB) and Cathepsin D (CTSD) while increased the extracellular CTSB and CTSD. It entailed that TBBPA exposure could promote the lysosomal exocytosis in cancer cells. The reversal results were obtained after adding lysosomal exocytosis inhibitor vacuolin-1. Docking results suggested that TBBPA could bind to TRPML1. It was consistent with the binding position of agonist ML-SA1. TRPML1 knockdown significantly decreased the invasion and migration, and the results were reversed when TBBPA was added. The results were indicated that TRPML1 was critical in lysosomal exocytosis. In addition, our results showed that TBBPA-TRPML1 complex regulated the calcium-mediated lysosomal exocytosis, thereby promoting the metastasis in liver cancer cells. It was expected that our data could provide important basis for understanding the molecular mechanism(s) of TBBPA promoting invasion and migration of hepatoma cells and give rise to profound concerns of TBBPA exposure on human health.