Skeletal muscle atrophy is a pathological condition that contributes to morbidity in a variety of conditions including denervation, cachexia, and aging. Muscle atrophy is characterized as decreased muscle fiber cross-sectional area and protein content due, in part, to the proteolytic activities of two muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases: muscle RING-finger 1 (MuRF1) and muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx or Atrogin-1). The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway has emerged as a critical signaling network in skeletal muscle atrophy and has become a prime therapeutic target for the treatment of muscle diseases. Unfortunately, none of the NF-κB targeting drugs are currently being used to treat these diseases, likely because of our limited knowledge and specificity, for muscle biology and disease. The cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (cIAP1) protein is a positive regulator of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-mediated classical NF-κB signaling, and cIAP1 loss has been shown to enhance muscle regeneration during acute and chronic injury.