Therapeutic hypothermia, or targeted temperature management (TTM), is a strategy of reducing the core body temperature of survivors of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) to minimize neurological damage caused by severe hypoxia. Initial clinical trials examining this technique demonstrated significant improvement in neurological function among survivors of out-of-hospital SCA with an initial shockable rhythm. Since then, TTM has become an integral part of the care provided to comatose survivors of SCA. However, multiple questions persist regarding the target cooling temperature, duration of cooling, and utility of TTM in patient populations such as survivors of out-of-hospital SCA with non-shockable rhythms or in-hospital SCA. This review article summarizes the current evidence regarding optimal application of TTM and compares the recommendations for TTM in current guidelines.