Chemosensitivity is a crucial feature for all tumours so that they can be successfully treated, but the huge heterogeneity of these diseases, to be intended both inter- and intra-tumour, makes it a hard-to-win battle. Indeed, this genotypic and phenotypic variety, together with the adaptability of tumours, results in a plethora of chemoresistance acquisition mechanisms strongly affecting the effectiveness of treatments at different levels. Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins are shown to be involved in some of these mechanisms thanks to their E3-ubiquitin ligase activity, but also to other activities they can exert in several cellular pathways. Undoubtedly, the ability to regulate the stability and activity of the p53 tumour suppressor protein, shared by many of the TRIMs, represents the preeminent link between this protein family and chemoresistance. Indeed, they can modulate p53 degradation, localization and subset of transactivated target genes, shifting the cellular response towards a cytoprotective or cytotoxic reaction to whatever damage induced by therapy, sometimes in a cellular-dependent way. The involvement in other chemoresistance acquisition mechanisms, independent by p53, is known, affecting pivotal processes like PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signalling transduction or Wnt/beta catenin pathway, to name a few. Hence, the inhibition or the enhancement of TRIM proteins functionality could be worth investigating to better understand chemoresistance and as a strategy to increase effectiveness of anticancer therapies.