Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) lacks effective treatment, and studies have shown that PARPi inhibitors, such as Olaparib, are somewhat effective; however, the efficacy of Olaparib in CRPC still needs to be further improved. Nitrogen permease regulator-like 2 (NPRL2) is reported to be a tumor suppressor candidate gene and is closely related to the DNA repair pathway, which can affect the sensitivity of many chemotherapeutic drugs. However, there is no research on whether NPRL2 is associated with sensitivity to Olaparib. Hence, in the present study, we examined the NPRL2 expression levels in several PCa cell lines (LNCaP, PC3, and enzalutamide-resistant LNCaP, named LNPER) by Western blot. In addition, we investigated the role of NPRL2 expression and silencing in cell proliferation and in the regulation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), which can mediate DNA repair and sensitivity to Olaparib. Furthermore, we performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to determine the mechanism of action of NPRL2 in adjusting Olaparib sensitivity. Our findings demonstrated that the NPRL2 expression level was upregulated in PCa cells, especially CRPC cells. NPRL2 overexpression promoted growth and resistance to Olaparib, and NPRL2 silencing inhibited proliferation, enhanced sensitivity to Olaparib, and increased CRRL2 expression in PCa cells. In addition, the Olaparib-induced growth delay in NPRL2-silenced PC3 tumors in mice correlated with ATM signaling downregulation, an apoptosis increase and migration/invasion suppression. Our results indicate that NPRL2 silencing enhances sensitivity to Olaparib treatment in CRPC and that NPRL2 may serve as a potential therapeutic target and predict resistance to Olaparib in CRPC.