Testing the reciprocal association between smoking and depressive symptoms from adolescence to adulthood: A longitudinal twin study.


Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address: [Email]


Longitudinal studies enhance understanding of the complex reciprocal relationship between smoking and depression from adolescence to young adulthood. Examining bi-directional associations between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms in a genetically informative twin design can help to understand whether the associations are independent of shared genetic and environmental factors.


Adolescence,Adulthood,Cigarette smoking,Depressive symptoms,Twins,