Tetrabromobisphenol A-induced depolarization of rat cerebellar granule cells: ex vivo and in vitro studies.


Department of Neurochemistry, Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Pawinskiego 5, 02-106, Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address: [Email]


The brominated flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is toxic to cultured brain neurons, and glutamate receptors partially mediate this effect; consequently, the depolarizing effect of TBBPA on neurons is to be expected, but it is yet to be actually demonstrated. The aim of this study was to detect TBBPA-evoked depolarization and identify the underlying mechanisms. The plasma membrane potential of rat cerebellar granule cells (CGC) in cerebellar slices or in primary cultures was measured using whole-cell current clamp recordings, or the fluorescent probe oxonol VI, respectively. The contribution of NMDA and AMPA receptors, voltage-gated sodium channels and intracellular calcium mobilization was tested using their selective antagonists or inhibitors. Direct interactions of TBBPA with NMDARs were tested by measuring the specific binding of radiolabeled NMDAR ligands to isolated rat cortical membrane fraction. TBBPA (25 μM) strongly depolarized CGC in cerebellar slices, and at ≥ 7.5 μM concentration-dependently depolarized primary CGC cultures. Depolarization of the primary CGC by 25 μM TBBPA was partly reduced when MK-801 was applied alone or in combination with either TTX or CNQX, or where bastadin 12 was applied in combination with ryanodine, whereas depolarization was completely prevented when MK-801, CNQX and TTX where combined. TBBPA had no effect on the specific binding of NMDAR radio-ligands to isolated cortical membranes. These results demonstrate the depolarizing effect of TBBPA on CGC, which is mainly mediated by ionotropic glutamate receptors, while voltage-gated sodium channels are also involved. We found no evidence for the direct activation of NMDARs by TBBPA.


NMDA receptor,Neurotoxicity,Oxonol VI,Plasma membrane potential,Radioligand binding,Whole-cell current clamp recording,

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