The Burden and Risk Factors for Infection of Transvenous Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device: a Nationwide Cohort Study.


Medtronic Korea, Ltd., Seoul, Korea. [Email]


OBJECTIVE : There are limited published data on the incidence and cost associated with cardiac implantable electrical device (CIED) infection for Asian patients. We analyzed the infection burden associated with the implantation of CIEDs in Korea.
METHODS : In the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service (HIRA) database during the period from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2016, we identified 16,908 patients with CIED implantation. CIED infection was defined as either: 1) Infection-related diagnosis code by the Korean Standard Classification of Diseases after any CIED procedure; or 2) CIED removal along with systemic infection.
RESULTS : The proportions of first implantation and replacement were 77.6% and 22.4%, respectively. During the follow-up period of 17.1±10.6 months, a total of 462 patients had CIED infection with incidence of 1.95 per 100 person-years with higher infection rate in replacement than first implantation (3.97 vs. 1.4 per 100 person-years, p<0.001). The average cost per person was US$ 16,584 (pacemaker, $13,736; implantable cardioverter defibrillator, $28,402; cardiac resynchronization therapy, $29,674). The risk factors of CIED infection were generator replacement (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 3.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.60-3.78), diabetes mellitus (aHR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.58-2.38), and congestive heart failure (aHR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.51-2.28).
CONCLUSIONS : The rate of CIED infection in Korea was 1.95 per 100 person-years with average cost of US$ 16,584. The most important risk factor was generator replacement. This result suggests that generator replacement should be performed cautiously to avoid CIED infection.


Cost,Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator,Infection,Pacemaker,Risk factors,