The Prevalence of Headache and Associated Factors in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Affiliation

Almalki D(1), Shubair MM(2), Al-Khateeb BF(3), Obaid Alshammari RA(4), Alshahrani SM(5), Aldahash R(6), Angawi K(7), Alsalamah M(8), Al-Zahrani J(9), Al-Ghamdi S(9), Al-Zahrani HS(10), El-Metwally A(11), Aldossari KK(9).
Author information:
(1)Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia.
(2)School of Health Sciences, University of Northern British Columbia
(UNBC), 3333 University Way, Prince George, British Columbia, Canada.
(3)Department of Family Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, College of Public Health and Health Informatics, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
(4)Princess Nourah University, Leader of Epidemiology of Batch 39, Member of Quality Club of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences College at Princess Noura University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
(5)College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.
(6)College of Medicine, Medicine Department, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences
(KSAU-HS), King Abdulaziz Medical City-National Guard, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
(7)Department of Health Services and Hospital Administration, Faculty of Economics and Administration, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 80200, Saudi Arabia.
(8)Department of Emergency Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
(9)Family & Community Medicine Department, College of Medicine, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia.
(10)Family Medicine and Medical Education, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
(11)College of Public Health and Health Informatics, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Only few studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors of headaches among the Saudi population. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of headache and to explore its associated risk factors Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: The multistage sampling technique was used to enroll 1200 population-based participants who were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire about headaches, demographics, and several other parameters such as smoking status and different chronic and psychological illnesses. The chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to test the association. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of headaches in this study was 3%. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that females were more likely to have headaches than males (odds ratio (OR) 0.735, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.612-1.341; P=0.024). Being a current smoker was also significantly associated with higher "odds" of having headache (OR = 1.319, 95% CI = 0.932-2.462; P=0.037). Participants who were overweight had a significantly higher risk of headache (OR = 1.631, 95% CI = 1.48-1.854; P=0.037). Nonmarried people were significantly more likely to have headache pain, compared to married individuals (OR = 0.875, 95% CI = 0.646-2.317; P=0.047). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of headaches was 3%, and four significant associated factors were identified: females, nonmarried, smoking, and overweight. The temporality of the relationship between these factors and headache cannot be confirmed in this cross-sectional study; so future longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these potential causal relationships.