The Regional-Specific Relative and Absolute Expression of Gut Transporters in Adult Caucasians: A Meta-Analysis.


Certara UK Ltd., Simcyp Division, Sheffield, United Kingdom [Email]


The aim of this study was to derive region-specific transporter expression data suitable for in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) within a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling framework. A meta-analysis was performed whereby literary sources reporting region-specific transporter expression obtained via absolute and relative quantification approaches were considered in healthy adult Caucasian individuals. Furthermore, intestinal total membrane protein yield was calculated to enable mechanistic IVIVE via absolute transporter abundances. Where required, authors were contacted for additional information. A refined database was constructed where samples were excluded based on quantification in, non-Caucasian subjects, disease tissue, subjects <18 years old, duplicated samples, non-total membrane matrix, pooled matrices, or cDNA. Demographic data were collected where available. The weighted and geometric mean, coefficient of variation, and between-study homogeneity was calculated in each of eight gut segments (duodenum, two jejunum, four ileum, and colon) for 16 transporters. Expression data were normalized to that in the proximal jejunum. From a total of 47 articles, the final database consisted of 2238 measurements for 16 transporters. The solute carrier peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) showed the highest jejunal abundance, while multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 was the highest abundance ATP-binding cassette transporter. Transporters displaying significant region-specific expression included the ileal bile acid transporter, which showed 18-fold greater terminal ileum expression compared with the proximal jejunum, while MRP3, organic cation transporter type 1 (OCTN1), and OCT1 showed >2-fold higher expression in other regions compared with the proximal jejunum. This is the first systematic analysis incorporating absolute quantification methodology to determine region-specific intestinal transporter expression. It is expected to be beneficial for mechanistic transporter IVIVE in healthy adult Caucasians. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Given the burgeoning reports of absolute transporter abundances in the human intestine, the incorporation of such information into mechanistic IVIVE-PBPK models could offer a distinct advantage in facilitating the robust assessment of the impact of gut transporters on drug disposition. The systematic and formal assessment via a literature meta-analysis described herein, enables assignment of the regional-specific expression, absolute transporter abundances, interindividual variability, and other associated scaling factors to healthy Caucasian populations within PBPK models. The resulting values are available to incorporate into PBPK models, and offer a verifiable account describing intestinal transporter expression within PBPK models for persons wishing to utilize them. Furthermore, these data facilitate the development of appropriate IVIVE scaling strategies using absolute transporter abundances.