Phenylpropanoids comprise a broad spectrum of biologically active natural products. As part of our ongoing research on antiepileptic active compounds from traditional Chinese herb, Acorus calamus var. angustatus Besser, three undescribed phenylpropanoids and twenty-two known ones were isolated. All the undescribed structures were determined by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS. In addition, γ-asaronol was identified as racemates and its absolute configuration were determined by the modified Mosher's method and ECD spectral data. Furthermore, some selected isolated compounds were evaluated for their cell viability and neuroprotective activities in H2O2-induced SH-SY5Y cells. α-Asaronol, β-asaronol, 3-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)propan-1-ol and 1,2,4-trimethoxy-5-(3-methoxypropyl)benzene exerted potential protective activity from neuronal oxidative stress in all test concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 100 μM, in which the neuroprotective activity of β-asaronol was the best.