Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Obesity and Eating Habits Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular - Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Community Nutrition, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address: [Email]
OBJECTIVE : Dietary inflammatory potential has been associated with several cancers. However, the relationship between the dietary inflammatory index (DII®) and glioma is not clear. The aim of this study was to examine DII in relation to glioma. METHODS : In a hospital-based case-control study, we selected 128 newly-diagnosed cases of glioma and 256 controls. Cases were medically confirmed glioma patients, with no history of other cancers. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess diet. DII scores were calculated based on the quantity of dietary components with inflammatory or anti-inflammatory potential. We used conditional logistic regression models to examine the association between the DII and glioma. RESULTS : Study participants were on average 43 years old and predominantly male (58%). After controlling for age, sex and energy intake, individuals in the highest quartile of DII had 87% (95% CI: 1.00-3.47) increased risk of glioma compared to those in the lowest quartile. Additional adjustment for environmental confounders strengthened the relationship; participants with the greatest DII scores had approximately 2.1 times (95% CI: 1.06, 3.83) increased odds of glioma than those with the lowest intake scores. The association was not substantially altered by further adjustment for BMI (2.76; 1.15-6.60). CONCLUSIONS : In conclusion, diets with high anti-inflammatory and low inflammatory nutrient contents are recommended to prevent glioma.