UNASSIGNED : Use of indwelling urinary catheter (IUC) in older adults has negative consequences, including delirium. OBJECTIVE : This analysis, from the "Delirium Day 2015", a nationwide multicenter prevalence study, aim to evaluate the association of IUC with delirium in hospitalized and Nursing Homes (NHs) patients. METHODS : Patients underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment, including the presence of IUC; inclusion criteria were age > 65 years, being Italian speaker and providing informed consent; exclusion criteria were coma, aphasia, end-of-life status. Delirium was assessed using the 4AT test (score ≥ 4: possible delirium; scores 1-3: possible cognitive impairment). RESULTS : Among 1867 hospitalized patients (mean age 82.0 ± 7.5 years, 58% female), 539 (28.9%) had IUC, 429 (22.9%) delirium and 675 (36.1%) cognitive impairment. IUC was significantly associated with cognitive impairment (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.19-2.16) and delirium (2.45, 95% CI 1.73-3.47), this latter being significant also in the subset of patients without dementia (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.52-3.43). Inattention and impaired alertness were also independently associated with IUC. Among 1454 NHs residents (mean age 84.4 ± 7.4 years, 70.% female), 63 (4.3%) had IUC, 535 (36.8%) a 4AT score ≥ 4, and 653 (44.9%) a 4AT score 1-3. The multivariate logistic regression analysis did not show a significant association between 4AT test or its specific items with IUC, neither in the subset of patients without dementia. CONCLUSIONS : We confirmed a significant association between IUC and delirium in hospitalized patients but not in NHs residents. CONCLUSIONS : Environmental and clinical factors of acute setting might contribute to IUC-associated delirium occurrence.