Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Korimoto, Kagoshima, 890-0056, Japan; Department of Pathological and Preventive Veterinary Science, The United Graduate School of Veterinary Science, Yamaguchi University, Yoshida, Yamaguchi, 753-8515, Japan. Electronic address: [Email]
The blood-feeding behavior of ticks has resulted in them becoming one of the most important vectors of disease-causing pathogens. Ticks possess a well-developed innate immune system to counter invading pathogens. However, the coevolution of ticks with tick-borne pathogens has adapted these pathogens to the tick's physiology and immune response through several mechanisms including transcriptional regulation. The recent development in tick and tick-borne disease research greatly involved the "omics" approach. The omics approach takes a look en masse at the different genes, proteins, metabolomes, and the microbiome of the ticks that could be differentiated during pathogen infection. Data from this approach revealed that oxidative stress-related molecules in ticks are differentiated and possibly being exploited by the pathogens to evade the tick's immune response. In this study, we review and discuss transcriptomic and proteomic data for some oxidative stress molecules differentially expressed during pathogen infection. We also discuss metabolomics and microbiome data as well as functional genomics in order to provide insight into the tick-pathogen interaction.