The effect of α-tocopherol and dithiothreitol in ameliorating emamectin benzoate cytotoxicity in human K562 cells involving the modulation of ROS accumulation and NF-κB signaling.


Shanghai Key Lab of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China. Electronic address: [Email]


Emamectin benzoate (EMB) toxicity contributes a potential risk to environment and human health. To investigate the effect of α-tocopherol (VitE) and dithiothreitol (DTT) in ameliorating EMB-induced cytotoxicity in human K562 cells, in vitro cultured human K562 cells were incubated with different concentrations of EMB in supplement with VitE and DTT when the cells were in the logarithmic phase. Next, the cell growth inhibition was evaluated using the MTT assay and cellular morphology observation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored using DCFH-DA probe and NF-κB signaling was determined using Western blotting. The results demonstrated that treatment with EMB (time- and concentration-dependent) showed significantly greater inhibition on K562 cell viability, heavier chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation, and stronger suppression of NF-κB/p105 and p65/RelA expression of K562 cells than the control group (p < 0.01). The supplementation of VitE or DTT could help protect K562 cells against EMB-induced cytotoxicity by improving cell viability, preventing ROS accumulation and up-regulating NF-κB signaling through their ameliorating effects against oxidative stress induced by EMB. VitE had a stronger synergistic effect in limiting EMB cytotoxicity than DTT. Our findings indicate that VitE and DTT are potent antioxidants for human K562 cells, offering a promising means of ameliorating EMB cytotoxicity.


Dithiothreitol,EMB cytotoxicity,Human K562 cells,NF-κB signaling,Oxidative stress,α-tocopherol,