BACKGROUND : Dietary habit can play a key role in the prevention and treatment of fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although many studies have investigated the effect of Mediterranean diet on NAFLD, findings are inconsistent and there is no systematic review on this topic. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to summarize the effect of Mediterranean diet on serum metabolic indices and anthropometric measures among NAFLD patients. METHODS : We searched titles, abstracts, and keywords of articles indexed in Science Direct, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar databases up to October 2018 to identify eligible RCT studies. Randomized clinical trials assessing the effects of MD on NAFLD were included. RESULTS : The present study included 10 randomized controlled trials, which involved a total of 856 adults with NAFLD. According to the result, MD may improve anthropometric measures, lipid profile, glycemic indices, liver enzyme, and NAFLD severity indices among patients with NAFLD. CONCLUSIONS : We found that MD could alleviate NAFLD severity parameters but differences between studies should be taken into account. Finally, in order to draw a firm link between MD and NAFLD, more clinical trials with adequate sample size and better methodology should be done.