OBJECTIVE : Our objective was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of curcumin on serum adiponectin concentration. METHODS : We searched PubMed/Medline, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Google scholar databases up to April 2019. RCTs conducted among human adults studied the effects of curcumin on serum adiponectin concentrations as an outcome variable was included. The weighted mean differences (WMD) and standard deviations (SD) of change in serum adiponectin levels were calculated. The random effects model was used for deriving a summary of mean estimates with their corresponding SDs. RESULTS : Out of 313 records, 6 trials that enrolled 652 subjects were included. The pooled results showed that curcumin supplementation significantly increased adiponectin concentrations in comparison with placebo (WMD: 0.82 Hedges' g; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33 to 1.30, P˂0.001). Greater effects on adiponectin were observed in trials lasting ≤10 weeks (WMD: 1.05 Hedges' g; 95% CI: 0.64 to 1.45, P˂0.001). CONCLUSIONS : Curcumin significantly improves adiponectin concentrations. However, due to some limitations in this study, further studies are needed to reach a definitive conclusion about the effect of curcumin on the levels of adiponectin.