The footprints of mitochondrial impairment and cellular energy crisis in the pathogenesis of xenobiotics-induced nephrotoxicity, serum electrolytes imbalance, and Fanconi's syndrome: A comprehensive review.
Fanconi's Syndrome (FS) is a disorder characterized by impaired renal proximal tubule function. FS is associated with a vast defect in the renal reabsorption of several chemicals. Inherited and/or acquired conditions seem to be connected with FS. Several xenobiotics including many pharmaceuticals are capable of inducing FS and nephrotoxicity. Although the pathological state of FS is well described, the exact underlying etiology and cellular mechanism(s) of xenobiotics-induced nephrotoxicity, serum electrolytes imbalance, and FS are not elucidated. Constant and high dependence of the renal reabsorption process to energy (ATP) makes mitochondrial dysfunction as a pivotal mechanism which could be involved in the pathogenesis of FS. The current review focuses on the footprints of mitochondrial impairment in the etiology of xenobiotics-induced FS. Moreover, the importance of mitochondria protecting agents and their preventive/therapeutic capability against FS is highlighted. The information collected in this review may provide significant clues to new therapeutic interventions aimed at minimizing xenobiotics-induced renal injury, serum electrolytes imbalance, and FS.