The measurement invariance of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for American Indian adults.


Essentia Health, Essentia Institute of Rural Health, 502 East Second Street, Duluth, MN 55805, USA. Electronic address: [Email]


American Indian people have high suicide rates. However, little epidemiological data is available on depression prevalence, a suicide risk factor, in this population. Some research suggests that depression scales may perform differently for American Indian people. However, the Patient Health Questionnnaire-9 (PHQ-9), a depression scale widely-used in clinical practice, had not been assessed for cross-cultural measurement invariance with American Indian people.


Adults,American Indian,Cross-cultural,Measurement equivalence,Measurement invariance,Native American,Patient Health Questionnaire-9,