The molecular and biochemical insight view of grape seed proanthocyanidins in ameliorating cadmium-induced testes-toxicity in rat model: implication of PI3K/Akt/Nrf-2 signaling.


Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Madras, Chennai 600025, India [Email] [Email]


The present study aims to evaluate the protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) on cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress in rats. A total of 24 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, namely control, GSP (100 mg/kg BW), Cd (5 mg/kg BW), and Cd+GSP. Cd-treated rat testes exhibited a significant increment in oxidative stress mediated inflammation and apoptosis. Pre-administration of GSP exhibit significant protection against the apoptotic and inflammatory damages elicited by Cd and uphold the intercellular antioxidant status in testes. Histological changes were studied and the immunohistochemical staining for caspase 3, HSP70, and eNOS protein expressions were also analyzed to justify the protective action of GSP. Furthermore, GSP prevented DNA damage, and enhanced the expression of antioxidant responsive elements Nrf2/HO-1 by PI3K/Akt-dependent pathway. Therefore, our results suggest that GSP acts as a multipotent antioxidant entity against Cd-induced oxidative testicular toxicity in rats.


Nrf2/HO-1,antioxidant,cadmium,grape seed proanthocyanidins,oxidative stress,testes,