The natural phenolic compounds as modulators of NADPH oxidases in hypertension.

Affiliation

Pharmaceutical Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

BACKGROUND : Hypertension is a major public health problem worldwide. It is an important risk factor for other cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral vascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and atherosclerosis.
OBJECTIVE : There is strong evidence that excess ROS-derived NADPH oxidase (NOX) is an important agent in hypertension. It augments blood pressure in the presence of other pro-hypertensive factors such as angiotensin II (Ang II), an important and potent regulator of cardiovascular NADPH oxidase, activates NOX via AT1 receptors. NADPH oxidase, a multi-subunit complex enzyme, is considered as a key source of ROS production in the vasculature. The activation of this enzyme is needed for assembling Rac-1, p40phox, p47phox and p67phox subunits. Since, hypertensive patients need to control blood pressure for their entire life and because drugs and other chemicals often induce adverse effects, the use of natural phenolic compounds which are less toxic and potentially beneficial may be good avenues of addition research in our understand of the underlying mechanism involved in hypertension. This review focused on several natural phenolic compounds as berberine, thymoquinone, catechin, celastrol, apocynin, resveratrol, curcumin, hesperidine and G-hesperidine, and quercetin which are NOX inhibitors. In addition, structure activity relationship of these compounds eventually as the most inhibitors was discussed.
METHODS : This comprehensive review is based on pertinent papers by a selective search using relevant keywords that was collected using online search engines and databases such as ScienceDirect, Scopus and PubMed. The literature mainly focusing on natural products with therapeutic efficacies against hypertension via experimental models both in vitro and in vivo was identified.
RESULTS : It has been observed that these natural compounds prevent NADPH oxidase expression and ROS production while increasing NO bioavailability. It have been reported that they improve hypertension due to formation of a stable radical with ROS-derived NADPH oxidase and preventing the assembly of NOX subunites.
CONCLUSIONS : It is clear that natural phenolic compounds have some potential inhibitory effect on NADPH oxidase activity. In comparison to other phenolic plant compounds, the structural variability of the flavonoids should off different impacts on oxidative stress in hypertension including inhibition of nadph oxidase and direct scavenging of free radicals.

Keywords

Apocynin,Catechin,Curcumin,Hesperidin,NOX,Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS),