Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) affects approximately 75% of all women of during their reproductive years. Previously, we reported that recombinant human IFN α-2b (rhIFNα-2b) protects vaginal epithelial cells from candidal injury in vitro. In the current study, we examined the effects of rhIFNα-2b (1.25 mg/mL, 10% inhibition concentration) on fungal clearance, immunocompetent cytokine responses, non-B IgG production, and tissue repair in a rat model of VVC. Following rhIFNα-2b treatment, the negative pathogen conversion rate reached 50.0% (3/6). Although rhIFNα-2b exhibited a limited ability to decrease inflammation and injury progression (P > 0.05), the Flameng mitochondrial injury scores were significantly reduced (P < 0.001) compared with those of the Model rats. After rhIFNα-2b treatment, the levels of IFN-γ and epithelial-derived IgG (tested by RP215) in vaginal tissues were significantly increased with those in the Control and Model groups (both P < 0.001), while there were no significant differences in the levels of IL-4 and IL-17 (P > 0.05). This is the first study to address the efficacy of rhIFNα-2b in treating VVC in a rat model, providing a theoretical basis for development of this promising treatment for clinical use.