Laboratory of Metabolic Manipulation of Herbivorous Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, P. R. China; Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety, Ministry of Education of China, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, P. R. China. Electronic address: [Email]
This study aimed to examine the role of thiamine in the local inflammation of ruminal epithelium caused by high-concentrate diets. Eighteen mid-lactating (148 ± 3 d in milk; milk yield = 0.71 ± 0.0300 kg/d) Saanen goats (body weight = 36.5 ± 1.99 kg; body condition score = 2.73 ± 0.16, where 0 = emaciated and 5 = obese) in parity 1 or 2 were selected. The goats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 6/group): (1) control diet (concentrate:forage 30:70), (2) high-concentrate diet (HC; concentrate:forage 70:30), and (3) high-concentrate diet with 200 mg of thiamine/kg of dry matter intake (THC; concentrate:forage 70:30). Goats remained on experimental diets for 8 wk. On the last day of 8 wk, ruminal and blood samples were collected to determine ruminal parameters, endotoxin lipopolysaccharide, and blood inflammatory cytokines. Goats were slaughtered to collect ruminal tissue to determine gene and protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathways. Thiamine supplementation increased ruminal pH (6.03 vs. 5.42) compared with the HC group. Propionate (21.08 vs. 31.61 mM), butyrate (12.08 vs. 19.39 mM), lactate (0.52 vs. 0.71 mM), and free lipopolysaccharide (42.16 vs. 55.87 × 103 endotoxin units/mL) concentrations in ruminal fluid were lower in THC goats compared with HC goats. Similar to plasma interleukin 1β (IL-1β) concentration (209.31 vs. 257.23 pg/mL), blood CD8+ percentage (27.57 vs. 34.07%) also decreased in response to thiamine. Compared with HC goats, THC goats had lower ruminal epithelium activity of the enzymes myeloperoxidase and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and 9. In contrast to HC, THC had downregulated mRNA expression of nuclear factor-κB (NFKB), TLR4, IL1B, MMP2, and MMP9 in ruminal epithelium. Thiamine supplementation led to lower relative protein expression of IL-1β, NF-κB unit p65, and phosphorylated NF-κB unit p65 in ruminal epithelium. Taken together, these results suggest that thiamine supplementation mitigates HC-induced local inflammation and ruminal epithelial disruption.