Thrombotic and hemorrhagic burden in women: Gender-related issues in the response to antithrombotic therapies.


Institute of Cardiology, G. d'Annunzio University, Chieti, Italy. Electronic address: [Email]


Thrombotic and bleeding risks, as well as the incidence and presentation of cardiovascular events and related outcomes, appear to differ between genders, partly in relation to variability in age, comorbidities and body size. Women experience frequent fluctuations of pro-thrombotic activity during their lifetime, related to menstrual cycles, the use of oral contraceptives, pregnancy, menopause, and hormone replacement therapy, all with potential impact on the clinical manifestations of atherosclerotic disease. On the other hand, compared with men, women feature an increased risk of bleeding during hospitalization in the setting of acute coronary syndromes or percutaneous coronary interventions. At the same time, benefits of antithrombotic therapy may differ in women compared with men in several clinical settings and according to the type of antithrombotic agent used for primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention, for the prevention of thromboembolism in patients with atrial fibrillation, and for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism. Data from observational and interventional studies do not exclude gender-specific differences in either the thrombotic and hemorrhagic burden, and the effects of antithrombotic drugs on clinical outcomes might also differ between men and women. Pathophysiological mechanisms causing these disparities are not entirely clear. Multiple factors in platelet function and coagulation mechanisms in different vascular beds, partly related to the hormonal status, might contribute to such gender differences.


Antithrombotic therapies,Bleeding,Coagulation,Gender medicine,Thrombosis,

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