The objectives of this investigation were to determine the effect of the time of copulation during the estrus period on estrus duration and luteinizing hormone (LH) response in goats. A controlled randomized study with two replicates (first = n = 12; second = n = 24), in which Boer does were divided at each replicate into three groups, was performed. Copulations at the beginning of estrus (two copulas within the first 4 h after estrus; COP-1; n = 12), copulations around the middle of estrus (two copulas around 16 h after estrus; COP-2; n = 12), and noncopulations (only mounts) throughout the estrus period (control group; CON; n = 12) were performed. Estrus duration for CON group was 41.3 ± 8.2 h; for COP-1, it was 34.0 ± 5.3 h, and for COP-2, it was 39.7 ± 6.9 h (P = 0.04). Differences were detected between COP-1 and CON groups (P = 0.01) and between COP-1 and COP-2 groups (P = 0.05) but not between CON and COP-2 groups (P = 0.56). The LH peak time for the CON group was 20.0 ± 8.0 h; for the COP-1 group, it was 13.0 ± 3.6 h, and for the COP-2 group, it was 20.5 ± 5.8 h (P = 0.04). The COP-1 group was different than the COP-2 (P = 0.02) and CON groups (P = 0.03), and no differences were detected between these last two groups (P = 0.87). It was concluded that copulation reduced estrus duration and hastened the LH peak time only when performed during the beginning of estrus.