Toward early cancer detection: Focus on biosensing systems and biosensors for an anti-apoptotic protein survivin and survivin mRNA.

Affiliation

Department of Biophysics, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), 02776, Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

The development of biosensors for cancer biomarkers has recently been expanding rapidly, offering promising biomedical applications of these sensors as highly sensitive, selective, and inexpensive bioanalytical tools that can provide alternative methodology to that afforded by the advanced hyphenated-instrumental techniques. In this review, we focus particularly on the detection of a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAP) family, protein survivin (Sur), a ubiquitous re-organizer of the cell life cycle with the ability to inhibit the apoptosis and induce an enhanced proliferation leading to the unimpeded cancer growth and metastasis. Herein, we critically evaluate the progress in the development of novel biosensing systems and biosensors for the detection of two survivin (Sur) biomarkers: the Sur protein and its messenger RNA (Sur mRNA), including immunosensors, electrochemical piezo- and impedance-sensors, electrochemi-luminescence biosensors, genosensors based on oligonucleotide molecular beacons (MBs) with fluorescent or electrochemical transduction, as well as the microfluidic and related analytical platforms based on solution chemistry. The in-situ applications of survivin biomarkers' detection technologies to equip nanocarriers of the controlled drug delivery systems with MB-based fluorescence imaging capability, apoptosis control, and mitigation of the acquired drug resistance are also presented and critically evaluated. Finally, we turn the attention to the application of biosensors for the analysis of Sur biomarkers in exosomes and circulating tumor cells for a non-invasive liquid biopsy. The prospect of a widespread screening for early cancers, based on inexpensive point-of-care testing using biosensors and multiplex biosensor arrays, as a means of reducing the high cancer fatality rate, is discussed.

Keywords

Cancer biomarkers,Electrochemical biosensors,Nanogravimetric piezosensor,Optical sensors,Survivin mRNA,survivin protein,

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