Towards sustainable biodiesel and chemical production: Multifunctional use of heterogeneous catalyst from littered Tectona grandis leaves.

Affiliation

Department of Energy, Tezpur University, Napaam 784028, Assam, India. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Waste biomass derived heterogeneous catalyst is an excellent alternative to chemically synthesized catalysts. In this work, calcined Tectona grandis leaves were proposed as an eco-friendly, renewable and low cost heterogeneous base catalyst. The prepared catalyst was examined by FTIR, XRD, XPS, SEM, EDX, TEM, TGA, BET and Hammett indicator test. The catalyst has an appealing nature towards various chemical transformations due to its basic surface sites provided by alkali and alkaline earth metals. The efficiency of the catalyst was successfully investigated by its application in biodiesel production. The products were confirmed by 1H and 13C NMR. 100% FAME conversion was attained using a catalyst loading of 2.5 wt% under optimized reaction parameters. The catalyst was further explored for Knoevenagel condensation reaction, in which it showed its effectiveness and recyclability towards the formation of benzylidenemalononitrile derivatives of aryl aldehydes. Thus, it is a potential 'green catalyst' derived from waste biomass without any addition of chemicals that can replace the industrial base catalysts used for biodiesel production and Knoevenagel reaction and makes the protocol environmentally benign.

Keywords

Biodiesel,Knoevenagel condensation,Renewable,Tectona grandis leaves,Waste biomass,

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