Toxicity of benzophenone-3 and its biodegradation in a freshwater microalga Scenedesmus obliquus.

Affiliation

Department of Environmental Science, Keimyung University, 42601 Daegu, South Korea; College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Environmental contamination by benzophenone-3 has gained attention because of its frequent occurrence and adverse environmental impact. Studies investigating the toxicity and removal mechanisms, along with its degradation pathway in microalgae are still rare. In this study, the ecotoxicity of benzophenone-3 on Scenedesmus obliquus was assessed through dose-response test, risk quotient evaluation, and changes of microalgal biochemical characteristics and gene expression. The calculated risk quotients of benzophenone-3 were >1, implying its high environmental risk. Expression of the ATPF0C and Tas genes encoding ATP-synthase and oxidoreductase was significantly increased in S. obliquus after exposure to benzophenone-3, while that of Lhcb1 and HydA genes was reduced. When exposed to 0.1-3 mg L-1 benzophenone-3, 23-29 % removal was achieved by S. obliquus, which was induced by abiotic removal, bioadsorption, bioaccumulation and biodegradation. Metabolic fate analyses showed that biodegradation of benzophenone-3 was induced by hydroxylation, and methylation, forming less toxic intermediates according to the toxicity assessment of the identified products. This study provides a better understanding of the toxicity and metabolic mechanisms of benzophenone-3 in microalgae, demonstrating the potential application of microalgae in the remediation of benzophenone-3 contaminated wastewater.

Keywords

Benzonphenone-3,Biodegradation,Microalgae,Toxicity,UV filters,

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