Transcranial and systemic photobiomodulation for major depressive disorder: A systematic review of efficacy, tolerability and biological mechanisms.


Serviço de Psiquiatria, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2350, Porto Alegre, RS 90035-903, Brazil. Electronic address: [Email]


Photobiomodulation (PBM) with red and near-infrared light (NIR) -also known as Low-Level Light Therapy-is a low risk, inexpensive treatment-based on non-retinal exposure-under study for several neuropsychiatric conditions. The aim of this paper is to discuss the proposed mechanism of action and to perform a systematic review of pre-clinical and clinical studies on PBM for major depressive disorder (MDD).


Depression,Low-level laser therapy,Low-level light therapy,Mitochondria,Near-infrared,Photobiomodulation,Treatment,