Adiponectin is thought to be involved in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis and reproductive processes. It also has an important role in the modulation of female reproductive functions, both directly and by affecting the secretory functions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The main aim of this study was to determine the effect of adiponectin on global gene expression and on differentially expressed genes (DE-genes) regulated by adiponectin in anterior pituitary (AP) cells of pigs. The changes in the transcriptomic profile of AP cells of pigs were examined using the Porcine (V2) two-colour gene expression microarray, 4 × 44. An analysis of data from the microarray experiment indicated there were 716 DE-genes. A total of 466 genes (220 up-regulated and 246 down-regulated) with fold change greater than 1.2 (P < 0.05) were subsequently selected for further analysis. Gene ontology was analysed based on a list of DE-genes. A list of biological processes was generated for both up-regulated and down-regulated DE-genes. The products of up-regulated DE-genes were involved in 60 biological processes, whereas for down-regulated products there were 18 processes. An analysis of the interactions between DE-genes indicated that adiponectin interacted with genes that potentially encode intracellular signalling pathways and factors which regulate reproductive functions. Furthermore, nine genes were selected from the list of DE-genes to confirm microarray results by quantitative PCR. The results enhance the knowledge about adiponectin's role in the pituitary functions of pigs and provide valuable insights for further studies into adiponectin's mechanism of action in the pituitary.