Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 Is Required for Foreign Body Response and Giant Cell Formation.

Affiliation

Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

The presence of biomaterials and devices implanted into soft tissue is associated with development of a foreign body response (FBR), a chronic inflammatory condition that can ultimately lead to implant failure, which may cause harm to or death of the patient. Development of FBR includes activation of macrophages at the tissue-implant interface, generation of destructive foreign body giant cells (FBGCs), and generation of fibrous tissue that encapsulates the implant. However, the mechanisms underlying the FBR remain poorly understood, as neither the materials composing the implants nor their chemical properties can explain triggering of the FBR. Herein, we report that genetic ablation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), a Ca2+-permeable mechanosensitive cation channel in the transient receptor potential vanilloid family, protects TRPV4 knockout mice from FBR-related events. The mice showed diminished collagen deposition along with reduced macrophage accumulation and FBGC formation compared with wild-type mice in a s.c. implantation model. Analysis of macrophage markers in spleen tissues and peritoneal cavity showed that the TRPV4 deficiency did not impair basal macrophage maturation. Furthermore, genetic deficiency or pharmacologic antagonism of TRPV4 blocked cytokine-induced FBGC formation, which was restored by lentivirus-mediated TRPV4 reintroduction. Taken together, these results suggest an important, previously unknown, role for TRPV4 in FBR.

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