Medical Research Center of Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, China; Key Laboratory of Research and Application of Animal Model for Environmental and Metabolic Diseases, Liaoning Province, China. Electronic address: [Email]
OBJECTIVE : Cigarette smoking results in well-known negative reproductive consequences. However, the role of histone deacetylase 1 and 2 (HDAC1/2) in the structural changes of uterine tissues induced by cigarette smoke (CS) exposure and the therapeutic potential of trichostatin A (TSA), a HDAC inhibitor, have not been investigated. METHODS : Female mice were exposed to CS twice daily for 30 days and TSA was injected intraperitoneally into CS-exposed mice on alternate days in the TSA-treated group. Uteri in the estrus phase were weighed and uterine histomorphology and HDAC1 cell distribution were examined by HE and immunohistochemistry. Markers associated with macro-autophagy (Beclin-1), autophagic flux (increased LC3-II and a lack of p62 accumulation), autophagy inhibiting factor (mTOR, phosphorylated mTOR and its upstream IRS, phosphorylated IRS), HDAC1/2, FOXO1 and FOXO3 were assessed by Western blot. RESULTS : CS exposure decreased body weight and triggered uterine histomorphologic alterations, including a thinner myometrium and a reduced number of glandular and interstitial cells. HDAC1/2 were activated in uterine tissues after CS exposure and TSA effectively inhibited HDAC1/2 activation and attenuated the loss of body weight and uterine wet weight induced by CS exposure. TSA effectively restored the thickness of the myometrium and number of glandular and interstitial cells. TSA also restored the expression of markers of macro-autophagy (LC3-II and Beclin-1) and reduced phosphorylated mTOR, phosphorylated IRS, FOXO1 and FOXO3 activation. CONCLUSIONS : TSA inhibited uterine histomorphologic alterations induced by CS exposure. The TSA effect might be associated with resumption of macro-autophagy via HDAC1/2 inhibition.