In lung cancer, antiangiogenic strategies targeting tumor-derived endothelial cells (TECs) afford a survival advantage, but the characteristics of TECs have not been comprehensively elucidated. Herein, high-purity (> 98%) TECs were obtained, and these cells retained expression of EC markers and exhibited high viability. ITRAQ-2DLC-MS/MS was performed to profile the proteome and the heterogeneity of ECs. Only 31 of 1820 identified proteins were differentially expressed between adenocarcinoma (ADC)- and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)-derived TECs (TEC-A and TEC-S, respectively), and cadherin-2 (CDH2) was the most significantly upregulated protein in TEC-A samples. Positive immunostaining for CDH2 (score > 3) was significantly more frequent in the endothelium of ADC tissues than in that of SCC tissues. Loss- or gain-of-function analysis showed that CDH2 significantly promoted in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis and sensitivity to the antagonist exherin. The MAPK/ERK and MAPK/JNK signaling pathways may play crucial roles in CDH2-induced HIF-1α/VEGF-mediated angiogenesis. Moreover, high CDH2 expression in TECs was significantly associated with tumor stage, visceral pleural metastasis, and decreased overall survival in patients with ADC but not SCC. Together, these data indicate the importance of CDH2 in angiogenesis and highlight its potential both for antiangiogenic therapy and as a candidate prognostic marker for ADC.