Microfluidic reactors represent a new frontier in the rational design and controllable synthesis of functional micro-/nanomaterials. Herein, we develop a continuous and ultrafast flow synthesis method to obtain triangular silver (tAg) nanoplatelet using a short range two-loop spiral-shaped laminar flow microfluidic reactor, with one inlet flow containing AgNO3, trisodium citrate, and H2O2 and the other NaBH4. The effect of the reactant concentration and flow rate on the structural changes of tAg is examined. Through the same miniaturized microreactor, hierarchical core-shell Ag@SiO2 can be produced with tunable silica shell thickness using one inlet flow containing the as-synthesized Ag nanoparticles together with tetraethyl orthosilicate and the other ammonia. The enhanced cellular internalization efficiency of triangular nanoplatelets by PANC-1 and MCF-7 cells is further confirmed in comparison with the spherical ones. These results not only bring new insights for engineering nanomaterials from microreactors but also facilitate the rational design of functional nanostructures for enhancing their biological performance.