Ultrasonic B-Line-Like Artifacts Generated with Simple Experimental Models Provide Clues to Solve Key Issues in B-Lines.

Affiliation

Department of Emergency Medicine, Red Cross Society Azumino Hospital, Azumino, Japan; Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Japan. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

We evaluated the influence of settings on an ultrasound machine on the configuration of a single B-line in a healthy model and analyzed the frequency spectrum. We also devised simple experimental models that generated B-line-like artifacts and evaluated the influence of the machine settings on the configuration. Visualization of B-lines was affected by the spatial compound imaging, the focal zone and the frequency. The spectra of both the B-line and non-B-line region at the same depth had the same center frequency and bandwidth. B-line-like artifact was generated by a spindle-shaped juice sac of a mandarin orange, an edible string-shaped glucomannan gel, glass beads and glass plates. Visualization of B-line-like artifacts was also affected by these machine settings. Our study indicated that the physical basis of some B-lines is multiple reverberations. B-line-like artifacts provide clues for solving key issues, such as the physical basis of B-lines, the sonographic-pathologic correlation in B-lines and the effects of machine settings.

Keywords

B-line,B-line–like artifact,Experimental model,Lung ultrasound,Machine setting,Reverberation,