Neuroblastoma is an embryonic cancer arising from neural crest stem cells. This cancer is the most common malignancy in infants and the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. The clinical course may be highly variable with the possibility of spontaneous regression in the youngest patients and increased risk of aggressive disease in older children. Clinical heterogeneity is a consequence of the diverse biologic characteristics that determine patient risk and survival. This review will focus on current progress in neuroblastoma staging, risk stratification, and treatment strategies based on advancing knowledge in tumor biology and genetic characterization. TYPE OF STUDY: Review article. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II.