OBJECTIVE : To develop and validate the Chinese version of the Joint Protection Self-Efficacy Scale (CJP-SES) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in China. METHODS : (1) Translation of the original German/English version JP-SES and cultural adaptation into the Chinese language; (2)Validation of the CJP-SES with the Chinese versions of the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale-8 (ASES-8), the Laffrey Health Conception Scale (LHCS), 10-item Perceived Efficacy in Patient-Physician Interactions Scale (PEPPI-10), Disease Activity Score-28 (DAS-28) and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). Instrument measurement included reliability testing, item generation, construct validity, test-retest reliability, and correlation with other measurements. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to determine construct validity and internal consistency. One hundred fifteen patients with RA were investigated. RESULTS : Finally, 105 RA patients were included in the analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated fit for a unidimensional model of the JP-SES. Additionally, the scale showed internal consistency (Cronbach's α coefficient 0.922), kappa coefficient (0.653), and test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.94). Weak correlations with other scores for the other instruments, such as the Chinese version of ASES-8 (0.263) and PEPPI-10 (0.326). Correlation with duration (0.274), moderate correlation with BMI (- 0.438) and DAS-28 (- 0.493), and strong correlation with HAQ (- 0.644) were found in this research. CONCLUSIONS : This is the first study to adapt and validate the JP-SES into Chinese for use in patients with RA. Our research showing that the CJP-SES has a good construct validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability. This scale can help doctors and nurses to assess the self-efficacy of patients with RA. BACKGROUND : ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: TJYY-YLS-036.