Vardenafil and cilostazol can improve vascular reactivity in rats with diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis co-morbidity.

Author

Basim Anwar Shehata Messiha

Affiliation

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Endothelial dysfunction and vascular reactivity defects secondary to metabolic and immunological disorders carry risk of serious cardiovascular complications. Here, the effects of the phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors vardenafil and cilostazol were examined against rheumatoid arthritis (RA)/diabetes mellitus (DM)-co-morbidity-induced endothelial dysfunction and vascular reactivity defects. After setting of RA/DM-co-morbidity model, rats were divided into a normal control group, an RA/DM-co-morbidity group, and two treatment groups receiving oral vardenafil (10 mg/kg/day) and cilostazol (30 mg/kg/day) for 21 days after RA/DM-co-morbidity induction. Aorta was isolated for biochemical estimations of the pro-inflammatory vasoconstrictor molecules angiotensin-II (Ang-II) and endothelin-1 (ET-1), the adhesion molecules P-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), the energy sensor adenosine-5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and the vasodilator anti-inflammatory molecule vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical estimations of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 were performed coupled with histopathological examination using routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and special Masson trichrome staining. The in vitro study was conducted using aortic strips where cumulative concentration response curves were done for the endothelium-dependent relaxing factor acetylcholine and the endothelium-independent relaxing factor sodium nitroprusside after submaximal contraction with phenylephrine. Vardenafil and cilostazol significantly improved endothelial integrity biomarkers in vivo supported with histopathological findings in addition to improved vasorelaxation in vitro. Apart from their known PDE inhibition, up-regulation of vascular AMPK and eNOS coupled with down-regulation of Ang-II, ET-1, P-selectin, VCAM-1 and MMP-2 may explain vardenafil and cilostazol protective effect against RA/DM-co-morbidity-induced endothelial dysfunction and vascular reactivity defects.

Keywords

Cilostazol,Diabetes mellitus,Endothelial dysfunction,Rheumatoid arthritis,Vardenafil,Vascular reactivity,

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