Venom Collection from Spiders and Snakes: Voluntary and Involuntary Extractions ("Milking") and Venom Gland Extractions.


Department of Earth and Biological Sciences, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, 92350, USA. [Email]


Venom collection (often called "milking") provides the toxic secretions essential for studying animal venoms and/or generating venom products. Methods of venom collection vary widely, falling into three broad categories: voluntary venom extraction (inducing the animal to willingly release its venom), involuntary venom extraction (glandular massage, electrical stimulation, or administration of induction chemicals to promote venom expulsion), and venom gland extraction (surgical aspiration or trituration of homogenized gland tissue). Choice of method requires consideration of animal species, animal welfare, human safety (avoiding envenomation), venom yield and composition desired, and level of toxin purity required. Here, we summarize the materials and methods used to obtain venom by each of these approaches from spiders and snakes.


Anesthesia,Arachnida,Fangs,Serpentes,Venom composition,Venom expression,Venom milking,Venom yield,

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