Vulnerability Indexing to Saltwater Intrusion from Models at Two Levels using Artificial Intelligence Multiple Model (AIMM).


Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, East Azerbaijan, Iran. Electronic address: [Email]


Unplanned groundwater exploitation in coastal aquifers results in water decline and consequently triggers saltwater intrusion (SWI). This study formulates a novel modeling strategy based on GALDIT method using Artificial Intelligence (AI) models for mapping the vulnerability to SWI. This AI-based modeling strategy is a two-level learning process, where vulnerability to SWI at Level 1 can be predicted by such models as Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Sugeno Fuzzy Logic (SFL), and Neuro-Fuzzy (NF); and their outputs serve as the input to the model at Level 2, such as Support Vector Machine (SVM). This model is applied to Urmia aquifer, west coast of Lake Urmia, where both are currently declining. The construction of the above four models both at Levels 1 and 2 provide tools for mapping the SWI vulnerability of the study area. Model performances in the paper are studied using RMSE and R2 metrics, where the models at Level 1 are found to be fit-for-purpose and the SVM at Level 2 is improved particularly with respect to the reduced scale of scatters in the results. Evaluating the result and groundwater samples by Piper diagram confirms the correspondence of SWI status with vulnerability index.


Artificial intelligence models,Lake urmia,Saltwater intrusion,Two-level learning,Vulnerability mapping,

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