West Nile virus infection and interferon alpha treatment alter the spectrum and the levels of coding and noncoding host RNAs secreted in extracellular vesicles.


The Australian Infectious Diseases Centre, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, MBS building 76, Cooper Rd, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia. [Email]


BACKGROUND : Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane vesicles secreted by the cells that mediate intercellular transfer of molecules and contribute to transduction of various signals. Viral infection and action of pro-inflammatory cytokines has been shown to alter molecular composition of EV content. Transfer of antiviral proteins by EVs is thought to contribute to the development of inflammation and antiviral state. Altered incorporation of selected host RNAs into EVs in response to infection has also been demonstrated for several viruses, but not for WNV. Considering the medical significance of flaviviruses and the importance of deeper knowledge about the mechanisms of flavivirus-host interactions we assessed the ability of West Nile virus (WNV) and type I interferon (IFN), the main cytokine regulating antiviral response to WNV, to alter the composition of EV RNA cargo.
RESULTS : We employed next generation sequencing to perform transcriptome-wide profiling of RNA cargo in EVs produced by cells infected with WNV or exposed to IFN-alpha. RNA profile of EVs secreted by uninfected cells was also determined and used as a reference. We found that WNV infection significantly changed the levels of certain host microRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) and mRNAs incorporated into EVs. Treatment with IFN-alpha also altered miRNA and mRNA profiles in EV but had less profound effect on sncRNAs. Functional classification of RNAs differentially incorporated into EVs upon infection and in response to IFN-alpha treatment demonstrated association of enriched in EVs mRNAs and miRNAs with viral processes and pro-inflammatory pathways. Further analysis revealed that WNV infection and IFN-alpha treatment changed the levels of common and unique mRNAs and miRNAs in EVs and that IFN-dependent and IFN-independent processes are involved in regulation of RNA sorting into EVs during infection.
CONCLUSIONS : WNV infection and IFN-alpha treatment alter the spectrum and the levels of mRNAs, miRNAs and sncRNAs in EVs. Differentially incorporated mRNAs and miRNAs in EVs produced in response to WNV infection and to IFN-alpha treatment are associated with viral processes and host response to infection. WNV infection affects composition of RNA cargo in EVs via IFN-dependent and IFN-independent mechanisms.


Exosomes,Extracellular vesicles,Flavivirus,Noncoding RNA,West Nile virus,miRNA,snoRNA,

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