Xyloglucan exoglycosidases in the monocot model Brachypodium distachyon and the conservation of xyloglucan disassembly in angiosperms.


Dpto. Biología Funcional, Facultad de Biología, Universidade de Santiago, 15782, Santiago de Compostela, Spain. [Email]


UNASSIGNED : Brachypodium distachyon has a full set of exoglycosidases active on xyloglucan, including α-xylosidase, β-galactosidase, soluble and membrane-bound β-glucosidases and two α-fucosidases. However, unlike in Arabidopsis, both fucosidases are likely cytosolic. Xyloglucan is present in primary walls of all angiosperms. While in most groups it regulates cell wall extension, in Poaceae its role is still unclear. Five exoglycosidases participate in xyloglucan hydrolysis in Arabidopsis: α-xylosidase, β-galactosidase, α-fucosidase, soluble β-glucosidase and GPI-anchored β-glucosidase. Mutants in the corresponding genes show alterations in xyloglucan composition. In this work putative orthologs in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon were tested for their ability to complement Arabidopsis mutants. Xylosidase and galactosidase mutants were complemented, respectively, by BdXYL1 (Bd2g02070) and BdBGAL1 (Bd2g56607). BdBGAL1, unlike other xyloglucan β-galactosidases, is able to remove both galactoses from XLLG oligosaccharides. In addition, soluble β-glucosidase BdBGLC1 (Bd1g08550) complemented a glucosidase mutant. Closely related BdBGLC2 (Bd2g51280), which has a putative GPI-anchor sequence, was found associated with the plasma membrane and only a truncated version without GPI-anchor complemented the mutant, proving that Brachypodium also has soluble and membrane-bound xyloglucan glucosidases. Both BdXFUC1 (Bd3g25226) and BdXFUC2 (Bd1g28366) can hydrolyze fucose from xyloglucan oligosaccharides but were unable to complement a fucosidase mutant. Fluorescent protein fusions of BdXFUC1 localized to the cytosol and both proteins lack a signal peptide. Signal peptides appear to have evolved only in some eudicot lineages of this family, like the one leading to Arabidopsis. These results could be explained if cytosolic xyloglucan α-fucosidases are the ancestral state in angiosperms, with fucosylated oligosaccharides transported across the plasma membrane.


Arabidopsis,Brachypodium distachyon,Cell wall,Exoglycosidases,Nicotiana benthamiana,Xyloglucan,