Ovarian development is a complex process controlled by precise coordination of multiple factors. The targeted gene knockout technique is a powerful tool to study the functions of these factors. The successful application of this technique in mice in the past three decades has significantly enhanced our understanding on the molecular mechanism of ovarian development. Recently, with the advent of genome editing techniques, targeted gene knockout research can be carried out in many species. Zebrafish has emerged as an excellent model system to study the control of ovarian development. Dozens of genes related to ovarian development have been knocked out in zebrafish in recent years. Much new information and perspectives on the molecular mechanism of ovarian development have been obtained from these mutant zebrafish. Some findings have challenged conventional views. Several genes have been identified for the first time in vertebrates to control ovarian development. Focusing on ovarian development, the purpose of this review is to briefly summarize recent findings using these gene knockout zebrafish models, and compare these findings with mammalian models. These established mutants and rapid development of gene knockout techniques have prompted zebrafish as an ideal animal model for studying ovarian development.