Zooplankton changes during bottom-up and top-down control due to sustainable restoration in a shallow urban lake.


Department of Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Rokietnicka 8, 60-806, Poznań, Poland. [Email]


Long-term cyanobacterial blooms and hypereutrophic state have been typical for the shallow, urban Swarzędzkie Lake for many years. Diversion of sewage did not change its trophic status, so restoration began in autumn 2011 using the sustainable approach based on three methods. The aim of the study was to analyse how sustainable restoration affects zooplankton. We hypothesised that bottom-up and top-down methods reconstructed zooplankton composition. Thus, the abundance of large-size cladocerans increased and controlled phytoplankton effectively. The elimination of cyanobacteria bloom, the decrease of rotifer abundance and the twofold increase of filter-feeder effectiveness were observed in summer 2012. However, high phosphorus concentration, lack of regular cyprinid removal and insufficient fish stocking together with high temperature prevented zooplankton from controlling cyanobacteria bloom in summer 2013. Rotifer domination with high trophy species was noted, as before restoration. The number of rotifers decreased in 2014, while crustaceans increased due to the significant decrease of nutrient concentrations and an intensification of biomanipulation treatments. Therefore, summer phytoplankton growth was low, without cyanobacteria dominance. The rebuilding of zooplankton in Swarzędzkie Lake was observed during sustainable restoration. However, the treatments should be intensified when adverse changes were observed to obtain better results for the improvement of water quality.


Aquatic ecosystem,Biomanipulation,Cladocerans,Phosphorus inactivation,Rotifers,