Chronic kidney disease (CKD) results in high morbidity and mortality worldwide causing a huge socioeconomic burden. MicroRNA (miRNA) exert critical regulatory functions by targeting downstream genes and have been associated with many pathophysiologic processes including CKD. In fact, many studies have shown that the expression of various miRNAs was significantly changed in CKD. Current investigations have focused on revealing the relationship between miRNAs and CKD states including diabetic nephropathy, lupus nephritis, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and IgA nephropathy. In this review, we summarize the latest advances elucidating miRNA involvement in the progression of CKD and demonstrate that miRNAs have the potential to be effective biomarkers and therapeutic targets for subsequent treatment.