p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) phosphorylates myosin phosphatase and thereby controls edge dynamics during cell migration.

Affiliation

From the Department of Oncological Sciences, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 and [Email]

Abstract

Cell migration is essential to embryonic development, wound healing, and cancer cell dissemination. Cells move via leading-edge protrusion, substrate adhesion, and retraction of the cell's rear. The molecular mechanisms by which extracellular cues signal to the actomyosin cytoskeleton to control these motility mechanics are poorly understood. The growth factor-responsive and oncogenically activated protein extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) promotes motility by signaling in actin polymerization-mediated edge protrusion. Using a combination of immunoblotting, co-immunoprecipitation, and myosin-binding experiments and cell migration assays, we show here that ERK also signals to the contractile machinery through its substrate, p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK). We probed the signaling and migration dynamics of multiple mammalian cell lines and found that RSK phosphorylates myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1) at Ser-507, which promotes an interaction of Rho kinase (ROCK) with MYPT1 and inhibits myosin targeting. We find that by inhibiting the myosin phosphatase, ERK and RSK promote myosin II-mediated tension for lamella expansion and optimal edge dynamics for cell migration. These findings suggest that ERK activity can coordinately amplify both protrusive and contractile forces for optimal cell motility.

Keywords

Rho kinase (ROCK),cell migration,cell motility,cell signaling,cytoskeleton,extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK),myosin,myosin phosphatase targeting subunit (MYPT1),p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK),

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