E.O. Darko, C. Schandorf , G. Emi-Reynolds, A. Faanu
Henry Lawluvi, RADIOLOGICAL HAZARD ASSESSMENT OF BEACH SANDS FROM LANDING BEACHES IN THE VOLTA REGION OF GHANA(2015)SDRP Journal of Earth Sciences & Environmental Studies 1(1)
Hazards attributable to the natural radionuclides present in beach sands, from ten (10) landing beaches in the Volta Region of Ghana, was assessed in this study. The terrestrial radiation exposure levels at the beaches, in addition to hazards humans may face in using the analyzed sands were determined. Gamma-spectrometry was used to assess specific activities of radionuclides in the samples. Three different radiological hazard indices analogous to radiation hazards were estimated. Total absorbed gamma dose rate in the air and equivalent annual effective dose were assessed. The resulting specific activities range from 1.87 - 17.53 Bq Kg-1 for 226Ra, 3.84 - 24.81 Bq Kg-1 for 232Th and 77.40 - 1103.90 for 40K, while mean values of 30.02 nGy h-1, 0.18 mSv y-1, 61.24Bq kg-1, 0.17 and 0.19 were obtained, for absorbed dose rate, annual external effective dose, radium equivalent activity, external hazard index and internal hazard index respectively. Sands from the beaches studied cannot be considered as radiological hazard to human safety and health.
Syvitski, J.P.M.; Vorosmarty, C.J.; Kettner, A.J., and Green, P. 2005. Impact of humans on the flux of terrestrial sediment to the global coastal ocean. Science, 308(5720), 376?380. (2001) PMid:15831750View Article PubMed/NCBI
Hall, C. M. Trends in ocean and coasltal tourism: the end of the last frontier? Ocean and Coastal Management, 44 (9-10), 601-618 (2001) 00071-0View Article
Alonso, I., Alc?ntara-Carri?, J., & Cabrera, L. Tourist Resorts and their Impact on Beach Erosion at Sotavento Beaches, Fuerteventura, Spain. Journal of Coastal Research, ISSN 0749-0208, 1-7. (2002)
UNSCEAR, Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, United Nations, New York (2000).
Alam M. N., Chowdhury M. I., Kamal M., Ghose S., Islam M. N., Mustafa M. N., Miah M. M. H., Ansary M. M. The 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activities in beach sand minerals and beach soils of Coxs Bazar, Bangladesh. J. Environ. Radioact 46:243?250 (1999) 00143-XView Article
Singh S., Rani A., Mahajan R. K. 226Ra, 232Th and 40K analysis in soil samples from some areas of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh, India using gamma ray spectrometry. Radiat. Meas. 39:431?439 (2005).View Article
Kannan V., Rajan M. P., Iyengar M. A. R., Ramesh R. Distribution of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in soil and sand samples of Kalpakkam (India) using hyper pure germanium (HPGe) gamma ray spectrometry. Appl. Radiat. Isot 57:109?119 (2002). 00262-7View Article
Freitas A. C., Alencar A. S. Gamma dose rates and distribution of natural radionuclides in sand beaches?Ilha Grande, Southeastern Brazil. J. Environ. Radioact. 75:211?223 (2004). PMid:15172728View Article PubMed/NCBI
M. A. M. Uosif, A. Taher and A. G. E. Abbady, "Radiological Significance Beach Sand Used for Climatotherapy from Safaga, Egypt," Radiation Protection Dosimetry, Vol. 131, No. 3, pp. 331-339. (2008) PMid:18579613View Article PubMed/NCBI
Radhakrishna, A.P., Somashekarappa, H.M., Narayana, Y., Siddappa, K., A new natural background radiation area on the southwest coast of India. Health Phys. 65, 390?395 (1993). PMid:8376119View Article PubMed/NCBI
Selvasekarapandian, S., Sivakumar, R., Manikandan, N.M., Meenakshisundaram, V., Raghunath, V.M., Gajendran, V., Natural radionuclide distribution in soils of Gudalore, India. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 52, 299?306 (2000). 00158-XView Article