Journal of Earth Sciences & Environmental Studies

ISSN: 2472-6397

Impact Factor: 0.865

VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 2

Page No: 550-566

The influence of annual variation and seasonal turnover of plant communities in hybrid ecosystems on metrics of biodiversity: implications for herbaceous vegetation sampling design


Corresponding Author

Ashlee Nichter

Earth Source, Inc., 14921 Hand Road, Fort Wayne, IN 46814, 260.515.2011

Email: ashleennichter@gmail.com

Affiliation

Ashlee Nichter*a, Andrew Gregoryb

aEarth Source, Inc., 14921 Hand Road, Fort Wayne, IN 46814, 260.515.2011

b190 Overman Hall, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403, 989.400.3492, Email: agregor@bgsu.edu

Citation

Ashlee Nichter, Andrew Gregory, The influence on annual variation and seasonal turnover of plant communities in hybrid ecosystems on metrics of biodiversity: implications for herbaceous vegetation sampling design(2019)SDRP Journal of Earth Sciences & Environmental Studies 4(2)

Abstract

Background : Most researchers recognize and account for annual and seasonal turnover of herbaceous vegetation in sampling protocols, but few have evaluated and quantified these effects and even fewer have evaluated these effects in hybrid ecosystems. We analyzed annual and seasonal turnover in herbaceous vegetation diversity in grassland reserves, ditches, and field margins in northwest, Ohio.

Methods : We sampled 33 sites in 2016 and 61 sites in 2017 with 21 sites sampled in both years. The point-intercept method was used to identify species presence along either side of two 10 meter transects. Site similarity was characterized using the Jaccard similarity index. Annual variation was analyzed via a z-test, to test the difference of similarity from complete similarity. Seasonal variation was analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA.

Results : We identified 139 species in 2016 (54% native and 46% nonnative) and 154 species in 2017 (57% native and 43% nonnative). We identified 93 species (52% native and 48% nonnative) both in 2016 and in 2017. We found a significant difference in annual site similarity (P < 0.01), and a significant difference in seasonal turnover in 2016 and 2017 between all sampling periods (P < 0.01), except Spring to Summer versus Summer to Fall in 2016 (P ≥ 0.19).

Conclusion: Because there is annual and seasonal turnover in species composition, sampling herbaceous vegetation should occur across multi-years and during multi-seasonal sampling bouts to characterize diversity in an ecosystem. Highest diversity levels occurred during the summer (June to July) and could be used to maximize sampling efficiency.

Keywords: Annual turnover, Hybrid ecosystems, Jaccard similarity index, Novel ecosystems, Seasonal turnover

Introduction

Human activities have fundamentally altered global ecology and resulted in novel sets of environmental conditions for most species, which ecologists refer to as either hybrid or novel ecosystems [1]. Hybrid ecosystems are ecosystems with community compositions that retain historic characteristics, but also contain community assemblages and species compositions not historically present [2]. Novel ecosystems are a special case of hybrid ecosystems that have been severely impacted, have no natural or historic analog, and the system cannot likely be restored to historic conditions [2-3]. Because few contemporary landscapes have not experienced substantial anthropogenic activity, hybrid and novel ecosystems are becoming the dominant ecological feature on the landscape and are becoming increasingly important in applied ecology and conservation [2, 4].

Many marginal ecosystems (e.g., roadsides and ditches) can be considered hybrid or even novel ecosystems [5]. Marginal ecosystems are anthropogenically disturbed ecosystems with many of them intentionally planted with nonnative species [6] then subsequently recolonized/colonized by native species [7]. Despite efforts to reduce invasion and non-native species establishment, most reserves are also heavily invaded; therefore reserves could also be considered hybrid ecosystems [8]. As a result, growing anthropogenic activity is increasing the threat and integrity of natural ecosystems.

A common characteristic in grassland communities is seasonal turnover of herbaceous vegetation. Thus, the species composition in the spring is different than species composition later in the growing season [9-11]. Therefore, the determination of community assemblage at a site may be conditioned upon the time of year that sampling occurs. Nonnative species take advantage of these varying life history traits when colonizing and, as a result, species seasonal turnover at a site might be contributing factor for the invasiveness of some non-native species [12]. The presence of nonnative species in hybrid and novel ecosystems exacerbates seasonal turnover of community assemblages [9-10]. In addition, sampling season may influence the determination of the invasiveness of the system based on the community dynamics and growing season of native and nonnative members of the local herbaceous vegetation community. 

In recognition of this phenomena in dynamic grassland communities, most researchers will characterize diversity in ecosystems by sampling across years to account for year to year variation in plant detection and environmental conditions [13] or across seasons to account for seasonal variation in species turnover [9-11]. On the other hand, managers may not account for these annual and seasonal effects due to time constraints or limited sampling ability. Consequently, this could have ramifications on how a natural area is managed. While annual and seasonal turnover is widely understood, few have evaluated and quantified these effects, and even fewer have quantified these effects in hybrid ecosystems (i.e. the types of systems most likely to be targeted for restoration and active management). In this paper we seek to 1) quantify the degree to which herbaceous vegetation varies annually and seasonally, and 2) provide best sampling practices to maximize vegetation diversity detection.

Materials & Methods

This study was conducted at grassland reserves and ditches of Lucas and Wood County in northwest Ohio (Figure 1). We sampled 33 sites in 2016 and 61 sites in 2017 with 21 sites sampled in both years. Each site was sampled during three sampling periods from March to August 2016 and 2017. Spring sampling occurred from 12-March to 9-June; Summer sampling occurred from 14-June to 14-July; Fall sampling occurred from 19-July to 21-August.

https://www.siftdesk.org/articles/images/467/1.png

Figure 1. Locations of the 61 sampling sites in Lucas and Wood Counties in Ohio, USA.

We assessed vegetation diversity of ditch sites along two, 10-meter transects each placed at a 20º angle from the bottom of either side of the ditch. Due to concerns regarding sampling disturbance in ground nesting bird habitat in reserves, we modified reserve site sampling to one 10-meter transect at a random bearing from a randomly selected set of GPS coordinates chosen within each grassland patch of the reserve (Karen Menard, Stewardship Supervisor of Metroparks Toledo personal communication). We used the point-intercept count method to index vegetation species presence every 0.25 meters along each transect [14].

We defined native diversity as defined by the Ohio Invasive Plants Council as species that were documented in the region prior to 1800. Species that did not fit this requirement were deemed nonnative [15; Supplementary File 1]. Species with no conclusive native or nonnative classification were excluded from the analysis (N = 1).

We used the Jaccard similarity index to compare year to year and seasonal variation in community assemblages. Jaccard similarity index is defined as:

Jaccard = M/(M+N)

where M is the total number of shared taxa and N is the total number of taxa not shared [16]. In this context, the Jaccard similarity index can be viewed as an indication of the percent shared species between sites out of the total species pool sampled among sites or time periods. We used the vegan package (Oksanen et al. 2017) in R (version 3.4, R Core Team, Vienna, AT) to calculate the Jaccard similarity index. The vegan package calculates the Jaccard dissimilarity, so we subtracted one from all values to obtain the Jaccard similarity index (Oksanen et al. 2017).

To compare year to year variation, we used a z-test to test significant deviation from one (complete similarity) to see if species assemblages differ between years using the PASWR package (Arnholt 2012) in R (version 3.4, R Core Team, Vienna, AT). For seasonal variation, we used a repeated measures ANOVA to compare similarity measures between sites from Spring to Summer, Summer to Fall, and Spring to Fall. We calculated a linear mixed model using package nlme (Pinheiro and Bates 2017) in R and used ANOVA to obtain the repeated measures ANVOA results. We used post hoc paired t-tests to test for significant differences among paired sampling periods. We compared seasonal variation for 2016 and 2017 in a separate analyses.

Results

In 2016, 54% of the species were native and 46% of the species were nonnative (139 total species). In 2017, 57% of the species were native and 43% of the species were nonnative (154 total species). Between 2016 and 2017, 52% native and 48% nonnative species (93 total species) were the same. The average site similarity from 2016 to 2017 was 0.24. We found a significant difference in site similarity between 2016 and 2017 (P < 0.01; Supplementary File 2).  For all sites collectively, only 47% of the species between 2016 and 2017 occurred at sites in both years.

In 2016, we identified 77 species in the Spring (52% native and 48% nonnative species), 84 species in the Summer (55% native and 45% nonnative species), and 74 species in the Fall (50% native and 50% nonnative species). In 2017, we identified 136 species in the Spring (60% native and 40% nonnative species), 152 species in the Summer (63% native and 37% nonnative species), and 114 species in the Fall (63% native and 37% nonnative species). We found a significant difference among sampling period Jaccard similarities in 2016 (P < 0.01; Supplementary File 3). Specifically, we found a significant differences from Spring to Fall versus Summer to Fall (P < 0.01) and Spring to Summer versus Spring to Fall (P < 0.02). We did not find a significant difference in similarities of Spring to Summer versus Summer to Fall (P ≥ 0.19). We also found significant differences among sampling period similarities in 2017 (P < 0.01; Supplementary File 3). Specifically, we found significant differences among all period similarity comparisons from Spring to Fall versus Summer to Fall (P < 0.01), Spring to Summer versus Spring to Fall (P < 0.04), and Spring and Summer versus Summer and Fall (P < 0.01).

Table 1. Mean and standard deviations for seasonal Jaccard similarities.

Period Comparison

2016

2017

Spring and Summer

0.2 ± 0.14

0.2 ± 0.1

Summer and Fall

0.24 ± 0.14

0.34 ± 0.2

Spring  and Fall

0.14 ± 0.10

0.17 ± 0.1

Conclusion

Our data suggest on average only about 25% of the species recorded at a site were present both years sampled. Although similarity is low between years, this can be attributed to the increase in total diversity, specifically the number of species, during the last year (61 species). The observed increase in diversity from 2016 to 2017, or turnover in diversity among years could be driven by climatic variations (e.g., temperature and precipitation) [11, 17] and phenological and life form classification (e.g., perennial, biennial, and annual) differences among species [11, 18]. Specifically, Schultz et al. [11] observed that drought conditions in one year resulted in lower site diversity and delayed phenological events >1 growing year after the observed drought period. Although we did not specifically measure precipitation during our study, we did have significantly more rainfall during the second year of our study and observed higher native species community composition during the 2017 field season.   

Although the similarities among the seasons were not significant in 2016, seasonal site similarity was very low. Between Spring and Summer only 20% of the species were the same and only 24% were the same between Summer and Fall. Similarities were even lower when comparing Spring to Fall. Seasonal turnover in 2017 was significant and, like 2016, was low. Between Spring and Summer only 20% of the species were present in both seasons and 34% of the species were present in Summer and Fall. Similar to 2016, the lowest similarity was between Spring and Fall. As a result, there is likely high species turnover occurring during the Summer (June to July). This can be partially attributed to phenological differences of germination and senescence [11, 18] and the amount of system-wide disturbance. In northwest Ohio, disturbance in ditches and field margins can almost solely be attributed to frequent mowing by Ohio Department of Transportation. This influences species composition because only species adapted to frequent disturbance can survive. Moreover, mowing influences species detection depending on the timing of the survey related to the timing of mowing.

While we detected low similarities in diversity across years, further research beyond two years may confirm the influence of climatic and phenological variations on inter-annual diversity [11]. Also, while we fully characterized diversity at our sites, we did not conduct exhaustive searches. Species may have been missed that did not occur along the sampling transect or were too young to be accurately identified to the species level.

Because of the observed inter-annual and seasonal variability of hybrid ecosystems, sampling efforts to characterize diversity should be determined by management goals; thus, defining when and how frequently to sample each site. Hybrid ecosystems, specifically the ditch network, in northwest Ohio are a highly interconnected network. If the goal was to characterize diversity of the hybrid ecosystems as a whole, sampling should occur across multiple years and seasons, but each site may only need to be sampled once. On the other hand, ditches are privately and publically owned and, while ditches are physically connected they are not functionally connected [4], each ditch should be treated as its own hybrid ecosystem. Therefore, each site should be sampled across multiple years and seasons.

Failing to account for inter-annual and seasonal variability could bias results and lead to the mismanagement of hybrid ecosystems. Multiple sampling year effort is advised regardless of the number of sampling periods used as sampling all sites and characterizing the entire system in 2016 could account for a downward bias of up to 31% or in this case missing 61 total species (23% or 46 species for 2017). Therefore, if the goal is to characterize diversity on a site by site basis and happens to occur in a dry year, diversity may be underrepresented. Given that under most climate change scenarios we anticipate a greater frequency of extreme weather event years, this propensity to underestimate diversity with a singular annual survey could prove detrimental to core management and restoration objectives for some grassland systems.

Sampling to characterize the entire ecosystem during the peak turnover or Summer (June to July) would account for 65% of the species identified in 2016 and 70% identified in 2017, but, similar to inter-annual variation, would be much lower on a site by site basis. Moreover, this observed level of turnover from inter-annual and seasonal variation is sufficient to change our inference about overall ecosystem integrity. For example, depending on the season and year sampled, we would infer that between 37% and 50% of the herbaceous vegetative community at a site was comprised of non-native species. In addition, comparing restoration success from sites sampled in different time periods from different years could bias the effectiveness of the results leading to improper site management.    

While inter-annual and seasonal variations in vegetation diversity is well known, few have quantified these changes. We demonstrated that site similarity across years and seasons is low, and therefore, to properly and fully characterize diversity researchers and managers should sample across multiple years and seasons.

Acknowledgement

We thank Hannah Olenik, Andy Dolan, Jordyn Hutchinson, Kaylee Luke, Mist Peavler, Casey Stephens, and Mitchell Woodruff who were technicians on this project. We also thank all private land owners, Bowling Green Parks and Recreation, Metroparks Toledo, Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge, and Wood County Parks District for access to their property to conduct this research. We also thank Bowling Green State University Center for Undergraduate Research and Scholarship, Bowling Green State University Department of Geology, and Ohio Environmental Protection Agency for support. Partial support for A. Gregory and A. Nichter was provided by Bowling Green State University.   


Author contributions

Ashlee Nichter contributed to the design, data collection, analysis, and writing.

Andrew Gregory contributed to acquiring funding, design, data collection, analysis, and writing.


FUNDING/FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

Partial funding for this study was provided by Bowling Green State University Center for Undergraduate Research and Scholarship and Ohio EPA.  

References

  1. Ellis, E.C., and N. Ramankutty. 2008. Putting people in the map: Anthropogenic biomes of the world. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6:439-447.

    View Article           
  2. Hobbs, R.J., E. Higgs, and J.A. Harris. 2009. Novel ecosystems: Implications for conservation and restoration. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 24:599–605. PMid:19683830

    View Article      PubMed/NCBI     
  3. Kasari, L., L. Saar, F. de Bello, K. Takkis, and A. Helm. 2016. Hybrid ecosystems can contribute to local biodiversity conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 25 3023–3041.

    View Article           
  4. Nichter, A.N. 2017. Population dynamics of hybrid ecosystems: Implications for conservation and management. (Electronic Thesis or Dissertation). Retrieved from

    View Article           
  5. Arenas, J.M., A. Escudero, and I. Mota. 2017. Roadsides: An opportunity for biodiversity conservation. Journal of Applied Vegetation Science 20:527-537.

    View Article           
  6. Mayer, P.M., S.K. Reynolds, and T.J. Canfield. 2005. Riparian buffer width, vegetative cover, and nitrogen removal effectiveness: A review of current science and regulations. Cincinnati, Ohio: National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

    View Article           
  7. Kiss, J., K. Penksza, T. Toth, and F. Kadar. 1997. Evaluation of fields and field margins in nature production capacity with special regard to plant protection. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 63:227–232. 00018-2

    View Article           
  8. Collinge, S.K. 2009. Ecology of fragmented landscapes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.

    View Article           
  9. Teeri, J.A., and L.G. Stowe. 1976. Climatic patterns and the distribution of C4 grasses in North America. Oecologia 3:1–12. PMid:28309208

    View Article      PubMed/NCBI     
  10. Cochrane, T.S., and H.H. Iltis. 2000. Atlas of the Wisconsin prairie and savanna flora. Department of Natural Resources, University of Wisconsin. Technical Bulletin No. 191.

    View Article           
  11. Schultz, N.L., N. Reid, G. Lodge, and J.T. Hunter. 2014. Seasonal and interannual variation in vegetation composition: Implications for survey design and data interpretation. Austral Ecology 39(7):755-766.

    View Article           
  12. Lockwood, J.L., M.F. Hoopes, and M.P. Marchetti. 2007. Invasion Ecology. Wiley-Blackwell.

    View Article           
  13. Barbour, M.G., J.H. Burk, and W.D. Pitts. 1987. Method of sampling the plant community. Pp. 210-239. Barbour, M.G., J.H. Burk, W.D. Pitts, F.S. Gilliam, and M.W. Schwarts. Terrestrial Plant Ecology. Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co., Menlo Park, CA. PMCid:PMC260699

  14. Caratti, J.F. 2006. Point Intercept (PO): Sampling method. U.S. Forest Service.

    View Article           
  15. Ohio Invasive Plants Council. Ohio Invasive Plant Assessment Protocol. Accessed 10 September 2017 from

    View Article           
  16. Hammer, Ø., and D.A.T. Harper. 2006. Paleontological data analysis. Blackwell Pub, Malden.

    View Article           
  17. Pitt M.D., and H.F. Heady. 1978. Responses of annual vegetation to temperature and rainfall patterns in northern California. Ecology 59:336–50.

    View Article           
  18. Rathcke, B., and E.P. Lacey. 1985. Phenological patterns of terrestrial plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 16(1):179-214.

    View Article           

Supplementary

Supplementary File 1. List of websites for taxonomic classification and native or nonnative classification1.

Website

URL

Illinois Wildflowers

http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/

Minnesota Wildflowers

https://www.minnesotawildflowers.info/

Ohio Division of Natural Areas and Preserves

http://naturepreserves.ohiodnr.gov/natural-features-of-ohio/ohio-wildflowers/species-profiles

Ohio Invasive Plant Council

https://www.oipc.info/

USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service

https://plants.usda.gov/java/

1This is not an exhaustive list of websites and sources

 

Supplementary File 2. Year to year variation in species turnover. This table is organized alphabetically by scientific name and by native and nonnative species. Species found in both years are organized first, secondly species only found in 2016, and lastly by species only found in 2017.

Scientific Name

Common Name

Nativeness

2016

2017

Achillea millefolium

Common yarrow

Native

x

x

Alliaria petiolata

Garlic mustard

Nonnative

x

x

Allium oleraceum

Field garlic

Nonnative

x

x

Ambrosia trifida

Giant ragweed

Native

x

x

Apocynum cannabinum

Common dogbane

Native

x

x

Asclepias incarnata 

Swamp milkweed

Native

x

x

Asclepias syriaca

Common milkweed

Native

x

x

Asparagus officinalis

Wild asparagus

Nonnative

x

x

Barbarea vulgaris

Common wintercress

Nonnative

x

x

Bromus inermis

Smooth brome

Nonnative

x

x

Bromus japonicus

Japanese brome

Nonnative

x

x

Bromus tectorum

Cheatgrass

Nonnative

x

x

Calystegia sepium

Hedge bindweed

Native

x

x

Carex lacustris

Common lake sedge

Native

x

x

Carex scoparia

Pointed broom sedge

Native

x

x

Carex cristatella 

Crested sedge

Native

x

x

Cichorium intybus

Common chicory

Nonnative

x

x

Cirsium arvense

Canada thistle

Nonnative

x

x

Conium maculatum

Poison hemlock

Nonnative

x

x

Convolvulus arvensis

Field bindweed

Nonnative

x

x

Conyza canadensis 

Horseweed

Native

x

x

Cornus sericea

Red osier dogwood

Native

x

x

Daucus carota

Wild carrot

Nonnative

x

x

Deschampsia flexuosa

Wavy hairgrass

Nonnative

x

x

Dipsacus fullonum

Common teasel

Nonnative

x

x

Dipsacus laciniatus

Cut-leaved teasel

Nonnative

x

x

Echinochloa crus-galli

Barnyard grass

Nonnative

x

x

Elaeagnus umbellata

Autumn olive

Nonnative

x

x

Elymus repens

Couch grass

Nonnative

x

x

Elymus virginicus

Virginia wildrye

Native

x

x

Equisetum arvense

Field horsetail

Native

x

x

Erigeron philadelphicus

Philadephia fleabane

Native

x

x

Festuca pratensis

Fescue (meadow)

Nonnative

x

x

Fragaria virginiana

Wild strawberry

Native

x

x

Galium aparine

Cleavers

Native

x

x

Geum canadense

White avens

Native

x

x

Geum macrophyllum 

Large leaf avens

Native

x

x

Glechoma hederacea

Ground ivy

Nonnative

x

x

Ipomoea pandurata

Wild potato vine

Native

x

x

Juncus tenuis

Path rush

Native

x

x

Juncus effusus

Common rush

Native

x

x

Lactuca serriola

Prickly lettuce

Nonnative

x

x

Lamium purpureum

Purple dead nettle

Nonnative

x

x

Leersia oryzoides

Rice cutgrass

Native

x

x

Lepidium campestre

Field peppergrass

Nonnative

x

x

Linaria vulgaris

Yellow toadflax

Nonnative

x

x

Lolium arundinaceum

Tall fescue

Nonnative

x

x

Melilotus officinalis

Yellow sweet clover

Nonnative

x

x

Melitotus alba

White sweet clover

Nonnative

x

x

Morus alba

White mulberry

Nonnative

x

x

Pancium leibergii

Leibergs panicgrass

Native

x

x

Parthenocissus quinquefolia

Virginia creeper

Native

x

x

Pascopyrum smithii

Western wheatgrass

Native

x

x

Pastinaca sativa

Wild parsnip

Nonnative

x

x

Phalaris arundinacea

Reed canarygrass

Nonnative

x

x

Phytolacca americana

American pokeweed

Native

x

x

Plantago lanceolata

English plantain

Nonnative

x

x

Plantago major

Broadleaf plantain

Nonnative

x

x

Poa pratensis

Kentucky bluegrass

Nonnative

x

x

Polygonum pensylvanicum

Pennsylvania smartweed

Native

x

x

Pycnanthemum pilosum

Hairy mountain mint

Native

x

x

Ranunculus hispidus

Hispid buttercup

Native

x

x

Rhus glabra

Smooth sumac

Native

x

x

Robinia pseudoacacia

Black locust

Native

x

x

Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum

Mountain watercress

Nonnative

x

x

Rubus allegheniensis

Blackberry

Native

x

x

Rubus idaeus

Red raspberry

Nonnative

x

x

Rubus occidentalis

Black raspberry

Native

x

x

Rudbeckia laciniata

Cutleaf coneflower

Native

x

x

Rumex obtusifolius

Broadleaf dock

Nonnative

x

x

Rumex occidentalis

Western dock

Native

x

x

Rumex crispus

Curlydock

Nonnative

x

x

salix nigra

Black willow

Native

x

x

Setaria glauca

Yellow foxtail

Nonnative

x

x

Silene latifolia

White campion

Nonnative

x

x

Silphium terebinthinaceum

Prairie dock

Native

x

x

Solidago altissima

Tall goldenrod

Native

x

x

Solidago canadensis

Canada goldenrod

Native

x

x

Solidago speciosa

Showy goldenrod

Native

x

x

Sorghastrum nutans

Indian grass

Native

x

x

Symphyotrichum pilosum

Frost aster

Native

x

x

Taraxacum officinale

Dandelion

Native

x

x

Thalictrum dasycarpum

Tall meadow rue

Native

x

x

Toxicodendron vernix

Poison Sumac

Native

x

x

Toxicodendron radicans 

Eastern poison ivy

Native

x

x

Tragopogon pratensis

Meadow salsify

Nonnative

x

x

Trifolium pratense

Red clover

Nonnative

x

x

Trifolium repens

White clover

Nonnative

x

x

Typha angustifolia

Narrow-leaved cattail

Nonnative

x

x

Typha latifolia 

Common cattail

Native

x

x

Urtica dioica

Stinging nettle

Native

x

x

Verbascum thapsus

Common mullein

Nonnative

x

x

Vitis riparia

River bank grape

Nonnative

x

x

Acer rubrum 

Red maple

Native

x

-

Adiantum pedatum

Maidenhair fern

Native

x

-

Agrostis stolonifera

Creeping bentgrasss

Nonnative

x

-

Allium canadense

Wild onion

Native

x

-

Amaranthus retroflexus

Redroot pigweed

Nonnative

x

-

Ambrosia artemisiifolia

Common ragweed

Native

x

-

Andropogon gerardii

Big bluestem

Native

x

-

Asclepias verticillata

Whorled milkweed

Native

x

-

Asclepias viridiflora

Green milkweed

Native

x

-

Bidens polylepis

Tickseed sunflower

Native

x

-

Carex intumescens

Greater bladder sedge

Native

x

-

Cornus amomum

Silky dogwood

Native

x

-

Coronilla varia

Crown vetch

Nonnative

x

-

Dipsacus pilosus

Small teasel

Nonnative

x

-

Duchesnea indica

Mock strawberry

Nonnative

x

-

Erysimum cheiranthoides

Wormseed mustard

Nonnative

x

-

Glycine max

Soybeans

Nonnative

x

-

Helianthus grosseserratus

Saw tooth sunflower

Native

x

-

Hemerocallis fulva

Common day-lily

Nonnative

x

-

Hesperis matronalis

Dame's violet

Nonnative

x

-

Iodanthus pinnatifidus

Purple rocket

Native

x

-

Lonicera maackii

Amur honeysuckle

Nonnative

x

-

Medicago lupulina 

Black medic

Nonnative

x

-

Mentha arvensis

Wild mint

Native

x

-

Morus rubra

Red mulberry

Native

x

-

Muscari armeniacum 

Grape hyacinth

Nonnative

x

-

Oligoneuron rigidum

Stiff goldenrod

Native

x

-

Onoclea sensibilis

Sensitive fern

Native

x

-

Oxalis acetosella

Wood sorrel

Native

x

-

Panicum capillare capillare

Witchgrass

Native

x

-

Panicum virgatum

Switchgrass

Native

x

-

Potentilla reptans

Five finger grass

Nonnative

x

-

Pycnanthemum virginianum

Virginia mountain mint

Native

x

-

Pyrus calleryana

Callery pear tree

Nonnative

x

-

Quercus rubra

Red oak

Native

x

-

Ranunculus acris

Tall buttercup

Nonnative

x

-

Setaria faberi

Giant foxtail

Nonnative

x

-

Symphyotrichum ericoides

White heath aster

Native

x

-

Thlaspi arvense

Water pennycress

Nonnative

x

-

Vernonia altissima

Tall ironweed

Native

x

-

Vernonia fasciculata

Ironweed

Native

x

-

Veronica peregrina 

Hairy purslane speedwell

Native

x

-

Vicia americana

American vetch

Native

x

-

Vicia villosa

Hairy vetch

Nonnative

x

-

Viola renifolia

Kidney leaved violet

Native

x

-

Zea mays

Corn

Nonnative

x

-

Agrostis scabra

Rough bentgrass

Native

-

x

Ailanthus altissima

Tree of heaven

Nonnative

-

x

Alisma triviale

Large water plantain

Native

-

x

Amaranthus hybridus

Smooth pigweed

Native

-

x

Arctium minus 

Common burdock

Nonnative

-

x

Aronia melanocarpa

Black chokecherry

Native

-

x

Barbarea vulgaris arcuata

Yellow rocket

Nonnative

-

x

Boehmeria cylindrica

False nettle

Native

-

x

Brachypodium sylvaticum

False brome

Nonnative

-

x

Carex radiata

Star sedge

Native

-

x

Carex vulpinoidea

Foxtail barley

Native

-

x

Celastrus scandens

American bittersweet

Native

-

x

Cicuta maculata

Water hemlock

Native

-

x

Cirsium altissimum

Tall thistle

Native

-

x

Cirsium vulgare

Bull thistle

Nonnative

-

x

Cornus florida

Flowering dogwood

Native

-

x

Dianthus armeria

Deptford Pink

Nonnative

-

x

Echinacea pallida

Pale purple coneflower

Native

-

x

Equisetum hyemale

Scouring rush

Native

-

x

Fallopia scandens 

Climbing false buckwheat

Native

-

x

Fissidens adianthoides

Maidenhair split toothed moss

Native

-

x

Fraxinus americana

White ash

Native

-

x

Galium pilosum 

Hairy bedstraw

Native

-

x

Geum rivale

Purple avens

Native

-

x

Hordeum jubatum

Fringed loosestrife

Native

-

x

Ipomoea hederacea

Ivy leaf morning glory

Nonnative

-

x

Lamium album

White dead nettle

Nonnative

-

x

Lamium amplexicaule

Henbit dead nettle

Nonnative

-

x

Leptochloa fascicularis

Bearded sprangletop

Native

-

x

Lonicera morrowii 

Morrow's honeysuckle

Nonnative

-

x

Lysimachia ciliata

Fox sedge

Native

-

x

Lysimachia nummularia

Moneywort

Nonnative

-

x

Monarda fistulosa 

Wild bergamot

Native

-

x

Monarda media

Purple bergamot

Native

-

x

Nepata cataria

Catnip

Nonnative

-

x

Oxalis stricta

Yellow wood sorrel

Native

-

x

Phleum pratense

Timothy grass

Nonnative

-

x

Phragmites australis 

Reed phragmites

Nonnative

-

x

Rhus copallinum

Prairie flame sumac

Native

-

x

Rosa multiflora

Multiflora rose

Nonnative

-

x

Rudbeckia hirta

Black-eyed susan

Native

-

x

Rumex acetosella

Field sorrel

Nonnative

-

x

Rumex maritimus

Golden dock

Native

-

x

sabatia angularis

Common pink rose

Native

-

x

Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis

American Elder

Native

-

x

Schizachyrium scoparium

Little blue stem

Native

-

x

Scirpus atrovirens

Dark green bulrush

Native

-

x

Setaria viridis

Green foxtail

Nonnative

-

x

Smilax rotundifolia

Round leaved greenbrier

Native

-

x

Solanum carolinense

Horse nettle

Native

-

x

Solidago gigantea

Late goldenrod

Native

-

x

Solidago nemoralis

Field goldenrod

Native

-

x

Solidago rugosa

Wrinkle leaved goldenrod

Native

-

x

Solidago odora

Sweet goldenrod

Native

-

x

Sonchus avrensis

Perennial sowthistle

Nonnative

-

x

Symphyotrichum laeve

Smooth blue aster

Native

-

x

Symphyotrichum novae-angliae

New england aster

Native

-

x

Tragopogon dubius

Western salsify

Nonnative

-

x

Trifolium campestre

Low hop clover

Nonnative

-

x

Verbena hastata

Blue vervain

Native

-

x

Veronica arvensis

Corn speedwell

Nonnative

-

x

Supplementary File 3. Seasonal variation in species organized alphabetically and by native or nonnative classification. Sp = Spring, Su = Summer, and F = Fall.

     

2016

2017

Scientific Name

Common Name

Nativeness

Sp

Su

F

Sp

Su

F

Acer rubrum 

Red maple

Native

x

-

-

-

-

-

Achillea millefolium

Common yarrow

Native

-

x

-

x

x

x

Adiantum pedatum

Maidenhair fern

Native

-

-

x

-

-

-

Agrostis scabra

Rough bentgrass

Native

-

x

x

x

-

x

Alisma triviale

Large water plantain

Native

-

-

-

-

-

x

Amaranthus hybridus

Smooth pigweed

Native

-

-

-

x

-

-

Ambrosia artemisiifolia

Common ragweed

Native

x

x

-

x

x

-

Ambrosia trifida

Giant ragweed

Native

x

x

x

x

x

x

Andropogon gerardii

Big bluestem

Native

-

-

x

x

-

x

Apocynum cannabinum

Common dogbane

Native

-

-

-

x

x

x

Arabis glabra 

Tower rockcress

Native

-

-

-

x

-

-

Aronia melanocarpa

Black chokecherry

Native

-

-

-

-

x

x

Asclepias incarnata 

Swamp milkweed

Native

-

x

x

-

x

x

Asclepias syriaca

Common milkweed

Native

x

x

x

x

x

x

Asclepias verticillata

Whorled milkweed

Native

-

-

-

x

x

-

Asclepias viridiflora

Green milkweed

Native

x

-

-

-

-

-

Bidens polylepis

Tickseed sunflower

Native

x

-

-

-

-

-

Boehmeria cylindrica

False nettle

Native

-

-

-

-

x

-

Calystegia sepium

Hedge bindweed

Native

-

x

x

x

x

x

Carex bebbii

Bebb's sedge

Native

-

-

-

-

x

-

Carex conoidea

Open fieldsedge

Native

-

-

-

x

x

-

Carex intumescens

Greater bladder sedge

Native

x

-

-

-

-

-

Carex lacustris

Common lake sedge

Native

x

x

x

x

x

x

Carex molesta

Troublesome sedge

Native

-

-

-

-

x

-

Carex perglobosa 

Globe sedge

Native

-

-

-

-

-

x

Carex radiata

Star sedge

Native

-

-

-

x

-

-

Carex scoparia

Pointed broom sedge

Native

x

x

-

x

x

x

Carex vulpinoidea

Foxtail barley

Native

-

-

-

-

x

x

Carex comosa 

Bristly sedge

Native

x

x

x

-

-

-

Carex cristatella 

Crested sedge

Native

x

x

x

-

x

x

Celastrus scandens

American bittersweet

Native

-

-

-

-

x

x

Celtis occidentalis

Hackberry

Native

-

-

-

-

x

-

Chamaecrista fasciculata

Partridge pea

Native

-

-

-

-

-

x

Cicuta bulbifera

Bulbet-bearing water hemlock

Native

-

-

-

-

x

-

Cicuta maculata

Water hemlock

Native

-

-

-

-

x

-

Cirsium altissimum

Tall thistle

Native

-

-

-

-

x

-

Comptonia peregrina

Sweet fern

Native

x

-

-

-

-

-

Conyza canadensis 

Horseweed

Native

x

x

x

x

x

-

Coreopsis lanceolata

Lanceleaf coreposis

Native

-

-

-

-

x

-

Cornus florida

Flowering dogwood

Native

-

-

-

x

x

x

Cornus obliqua

Pale dogwood

Native

-

-

-

-

x

x

Cornus racemosa

Gray dogwood

Native

-

-

-

x

-

x

Cornus sericea

Red osier dogwood

Native

-

-

-

x

x

x

Cyperus lupulinus

Great plains flat-sedge

Native

-

-

-

-

x

x

Dianthus deltoides

Maiden pink

Native

-

-

-

-

x

-

Digitaria cognata

Fall witchgrass

Native

-

-

-

-

x

-

Echinacea pallida

Pale purple coneflower

Native

-

-

-

x

x

-

Elymus virginicus

Virginia wildrye

Native

-

-

x

-

x

x

Epilobium ciliatum ssp. Glandulosum

Northern willowherb

Native

-

-

-

x

x

-

Equisetum arvense

Field horsetail

Native

x

x

x

x

x

x

Equisetum hyemale

Scouring rush

Native

-

-

-

x

x

-

Erigeron philadelphicus

Philadephia fleabane

Native

-

-

x

x

x

-

Erigeron strigosus

Daisy fleabane

Native

-

-

-

-

-

x

Fallopia scandens 

Climbing false buckwheat

Native

-

-

-

-

x

-

Fissidens adianthoides

Maidenhair split toothed moss

Native

-

-

-

x

-

-

Fragaria virginiana

Wild strawberry

Native

x

x

x

x

x

x

Fraxinus americana

White ash

Native

-

-

-

-

x

x

Galium aparine

Cleavers

Native

x

x

-

x

x

x

Galium pilosum 

Hairy bedstraw

Native

-

-

-

x

-

-

Geranium carolinianum

Carolina cranesbill

Native

-

-

-

-

x

-

Geum aleppicum

Yellow avens

Native

-

-

-

x

-

-

Geum canadense

White avens

Native

-

x

x

-

x

x

Geum macrophyllum 

Large leaf avens

Native

-

-

-

x

-

-

Geum rivale

Purple avens

Native

-

-

-

-

x

x

Helenium autumnale

Sneezeweed

Native

-

-

-

-

x

-

Hibiscus moscheutos

Crimson eyed-rose mallow

Native

-

-

-

x

-

-

Hieracium longipilum 

Hairy hawkweed

Native

-

-

-

x

-

-

Hordeum jubatum

Fringed loosestrife

Native

-

-

-

x

-

-

Hypericum perforat-um 

St. johnwort

Native

-

x

-

-

-

-

Iodanthus pinnatifidus

Purple rocket

Native

x

-

-

-

-

-

Ipomoea pandurata

Wild potato vine

Native

x

x

-

x

x

x

Iris versicolor

North blue flag iris

Native

x

-

-

-

-

-

Juncus tenuis

Path rush

Native

-

x

-

-

x

x

Juncus effusus

Common rush

Native

x

x

-

-

x

-

Juniperus virginiana

Eastern red cedar

Native

-

-

-

x

x

-

Krigia virginica

Dwarf dandelion

Native

-

-

-

x

-

-

Leersia oryzoides

Rice cutgrass

Native

-

x

x

-

x

x

Leptochloa fascicularis

Bearded sprangletop

Native

-

-

-

x

-

-

Lupinus perennis

Wild lupine

Native

-

-

-

x

-

-

Lysimachia ciliata

Fox sedge

Native

-

-

-

-

x

-

Lysimachia quadrifolia

Whorled loosestrife

Native

-

-

-

x

-

-

Maianthemum stellatum

Star flowered solomon seal

Native

-

-

-

x

-

-

Mentha arvensis

Wild mint

Native

-

x

-

x

-

-

Monarda fistulosa 

Wild bergamot

Native

-

-

x

x

x

x

Monarda media

Purple bergamot

Native

-

-

-

x

x

x

Oligoneuron ohioense

Ohio goldenrod

Native

-

-

-

-

x

-

Oligoneuron rigidum

Stiff goldenrod

Native

x

-

-

-

-

-

Onoclea sensibilis

Sensitive fern

Native

x

x

x

-

-

-

Opuntia humifusa

Eastern prickly pear

Native

-

-

-

-

x

-

Osmundastrum cinn-amomeum

Cinnamon fern

Native

-

-

-

-

x

x

Oxalis acetosella

Wood sorrel

Native

-

x

-

-

-

-

Oxalis stricta

Yellow wood sorrel

Native

-

-

-

-

x

-

Pancium leibergii

Leibergs panicgrass

Native

x

x

x

x

x

x

Panicum capillare

Witchgrass

Native

x

x

x

-

x

-

Panicum virgatum

Switchgrass

Native

-

x

-

-

x

x

Parthenocissus quinquefolia

Virginia creeper

Native

x

-

x

x

x

x

Pascopyrum smithii

Western wheatgrass

Native

x

x

-

-

x

-

Phytolacca americana

American pokeweed

Native

-

-

-

x

-

x

Polygonum pensylvanicum

Pennsylvania smartweed

Native

x

-

x

-

x

-

Populus deltoides

Eastern cottonwood

Native

x

x

x

-

-

-

Pycnanthemum pilosum

Hairy mountain mint

Native

-

x

-

-

-

-

Pycnanthemum tenuifolium

Narrow leaved mountain mint

Native

-

-

-

-

x

x

Pycnanthemum virginianum

Virginia mountain mint

Native

-

x

-

-

-

-

Quercus alba

White oak

Native

-

-

-

x

-

-

Quercus rubra

Red oak

Native

x

-

-

-

-

-

Ranunculus hispidus

Hispid buttercup

Native

x

-

-

x

-

-

Ratibida pinnata

Gray headed coneflower

Native

-

-

-

x

-

x

Rhus copallinum

Prairie flame sumac

Native

-

-

-

x

x

-

Rhus glabra

Smooth sumac

Native

-

-

-

x

x

x

Robinia pseudoacacia

Black locust

Native

-

x

-

x

-

x

Rosa arkansana

Prairie rose

Native

-

-

-

x

x

x

Rubus allegheniensis

Blackberry

Native

x

x

x

x

x

x

Rubus occidentalis

Black raspberry

Native

-

x

-

x

x

x

Rudbeckia hirta

Black-eyed susan

Native

-

-

x

x

x

x

Rudbeckia laciniata

Cutleaf coneflower

Native

-

-

x

x

x

x

Rumex maritimus

Golden dock

Native

-

-

-

x

x

-

Rumex occidentalis

Western dock

Native

-

-

x

-

x

-

Sabatia angularis

Common pink rose

Native

-

-

-

-

-

x

Salix nigra

Black willow

Native

-

x

x

x

x

x

Sambucus nigra ssp. Canadensis

American Elder

Native

-

-

-

-

x

x

Schizachyrium scoparium

Little blue stem

Native

-

-

-

x

x

x

Scirpus atrovirens

Dark green  bulrush

Native

-

-

-

-

x

-

Silphium terebinthinaceum

Prairie dock

Native

-

-

-

x

x

x

Smilax rotundifolia

Round leaved greenbrier

Native

-

-

-

x

-

-

Solanum carolinense

Horse nettle

Native

-

-

-

-

x

-

Solidago altissima

Tall goldenrod

Native

-

x

x

x

x

x

Solidago canadensis

Canada goldenrod

Native

-

-

x

x

x

x

Solidago gigantea

Late goldenrod

Native

-

-

-

x

x

x

Solidago hispida 

Hairy goldenrod

Native

-

-

-

-

x

x

Solidago juncea

Early goldenrod

Native

-

-

-

-

-

x

Solidago nemoralis

Field goldenrod

Native

-

-

-

x

x

-

Solidago rugosa

Wrinkle leaved goldenrod

Native

-

-

-

x

x

x

Solidago speciosa

Showy goldenrod

Native

x

x

-

x

-

x

Solidago erecta

Slender goldenrod

Native

-

-

-

x

-

-

Solidago odora

Sweet goldenrod

Native

-

-

-

x

-

-

Sorghastrum nutans

Indian grass

Native

x

x

x

x

x

x

Stachys palustris arenicola

Hairy hedge nettle

Native

-

-

-

-

x

-

Symphyotrichum laeve

Smooth blue aster

Native

-

-

-

-

x

x

Symphyotrichum novae-angliae

New england aster

Native

-

-

-

x

x

x

Symphyotrichum pilosum

Frost aster

Native

-

-

-

-

x

-

Symphyotrichum rac-emosum

Small white aster

Native

-

-

-

x

-

-

Symplocarpus foetidus

Skunk cabbage

Native

-

-

-

x

-

-

Taraxacum officinale

Dandelion

Native

x

x

x

x

x

x

Thalictrum dasycarpum

Tall meadow rue

Native

-

x

-

-

x

-

Toxicodendron diversilobum

Poison oak

Native

-

-

-

-

-

x

Toxicodendron vernix

Poison Sumac

Native

-

x

-

-

x

x

Toxicodendron radi-cans 

Eastern poison ivy

Native

x

x

x

x

x

x

Tracaulon sagittatum

Arrowleaf tearthumb

Native

-

-

-

x

-

-

Typha latifolia 

Common cattail

Native

x

x

x

x

x

x

Urtica dioica

Stinging nettle

Native

x

x

x

x

x

x

Verbena hastata

Blue vervain

Native

-

-

x

-

x

x

Vernonia altissima

Tall ironweed

Native

x

x

-

x

-

-

Vernonia fasciculata

Ironweed

Native

x

x

-

-

-

-

Veronica peregrina

Purslane speedwell

Native

-

-

-

x

-

-

Veronica peregrina 

Hairy purslane speedwell

Native

x

-

-

-

-

-

Vicia americana

American vetch

Native

-

-

-

-

-

x

Ailanthus altissima

Tree of heaven

Nonnative

-

-

x

-

x

x

Alliaria petiolata

Garlic mustard

Nonnative

x

x

x

x

x

-

Allium oleraceum

Field garlic

Nonnative

-

x

-

x

x

x

Allium vineale

Wild garlic

Nonnative

-

-

x

-

x

x

Alopecurus pratensis 

Meadow foxtail

Nonnative

-

-

-

x

-

-

Amaranthus retroflexus

Redroot pigweed

Nonnative

-

-

x

x

-

-

arctium lappa

Great burdock

Nonnative

-

-

-

-

-

x

Arctium minus 

Common burdock

Nonnative

-

-

-

x

-

x

Artemisia vulgaris

Mugwort

Nonnative

-

-

-

x

-

-

Asparagus officinalis

Wild asparagus

Nonnative

-

x

x

x

x

x

Astragalus purshii

Wooly pod milkvetch

Nonnative

-

-

-

x

-

-

Barbarea verna

American wintercress

Nonnative

-

-

-

x

-

-

Barbarea vulgaris

Common wintercress

Nonnative

x

-

-

x

-

-

Barbarea vulgaris arcuata

Yellow rocket

Nonnative

-

-

-

x

x

-

Brachypodium sylvaticum

False brome

Nonnative

-

-

-

x

-

-

Bromus inermis

Smooth brome

Nonnative

x

x

x

x

x

x

Bromus japonicus

Japanese brome

Nonnative

x

x

x

-

x

x

Bromus tectorum

Cheatgrass

Nonnative

x

x

-

x

x

x

Cichorium intybus

Common chicory

Nonnative

-

x

x

-

x

x

Cirsium arvense

Canada thistle

Nonnative

-

x

x

x

x

x

Cirsium vulgare

Bull thistle

Nonnative

-

-

-

x

-

x

Conium maculatum

Poison hemlock

Nonnative

x

x

x

-

x

x

Convolvulus arvensis

Field bindweed

Nonnative

-

-

x

x

x

x

Coronilla varia

Crown vetch

Nonnative

-

x

-

-

x

x

Daucus carota

Wild carrot

Nonnative

x

x

x

x

x

-

Deschampsia flexuosa

Wavy hairgrass

Nonnative

-

x

-

-

-

-

Dipsacus pilosus

Small teasel

Nonnative

x

-

-

-

-

-

Dipsacus fullonum

Common teasel

Nonnative

x

x

x

x

x

x

Dipsacus laciniatus

Cut-leaved teasel

Nonnative

-

x

x

-

x

x

Duchesnea indica

Mock strawberry

Nonnative

-

x

x

-

-

-

Echinacea purpurea

Purple coneflower

Nonnative

-

-

-

x

-

-

Echinochloa crus-galli

Barnyard grass

Nonnative

x

-

-

x

x

-

Elaeagnus umbellata

Autumn olive

Nonnative

x

x

x

x

-

-

Elymus repens

Couch grass

Nonnative

x

-

x

-

x

x

Erysimum cheiranthoides

Wormseed mustard

Nonnative

x

x

x

-

-

-

Festuca pratensis

Fescue (meadow)

Nonnative

x

x

x

x

x

x

Glechoma hederacea

Ground ivy

Nonnative

x

-

x

x

-

x

Glycine max

Soybeans

Nonnative

-

-

x

-

-

-

Hemerocallis fulva

Common day-lily

Nonnative

-

-

x

-

-

-

Hesperis matronalis

Dame's violet

Nonnative

x

-

-

-

-

-

Hippocrepis comosa 

Horseshoe vetch

Nonnative

-

-

-

-

x

x

Ipomoea hederacea

Ivy leaf morning glory

Nonnative

-

-

-

-

x

x

Lactuca serriola

Prickly lettuce

Nonnative

-

-

x

-

x

x

Lamium album

White dead nettle

Nonnative

x

-

-

-

-

x

Lamium amplexicaule

Henbit dead nettle

Nonnative

-

-

-

x

-

-

Lamium purpureum

Purple dead nettle

Nonnative

x

-

-

x

x

-

Lepidium campestre

Field peppergrass

Nonnative

-

-

-

x

x

-

Linaria vulgaris

Yellow toadflax

Nonnative

x

x

-

x

-

-

Lolium arundinaceum

Tall fescue

Nonnative

x

x

x

x

x

x

Lonicera maackii

Amur honeysuckle

Nonnative

-

-

-

-

x

-

Lonicera morrowii 

Morrow's honeysuckle

Nonnative

-

-

-

x

-

-

Lysimachia nummularia

Moneywort

Nonnative

-

x

-

x

x

-

Lythrum salicaria

Purple loosestrife

Nonnative

-

x

-

-

-

-

Malva neglecta

Common mallow

Nonnative

-

-

-

x

-

-

Medicago sativa 

Alfalfa

Nonnative

-

-

-

x

-

-

Medicago lupulina 

Black medic

Nonnative

x

-

-

-

-

-

Melilotus officinalis

Yellow sweet clover

Nonnative

-

x

-

x

x

x

Melitotus alba

White sweet clover

Nonnative

-

-

x

x

x

-

Morus alba

White mulberry

Nonnative

-

-

-

-

x

-

Muscari armeniacum 

Grape hyacinth

Nonnative

-

x

-

-

-

-

Nepata cataria

Catnip

Nonnative

-

-

-

x

x

x

Pastinaca sativa

Wild parsnip

Nonnative

-

-

-

-

x

-

Persicaria maculosa

Spotted ladysthumb

Nonnative

-

-

-

-

-

x

Phalaris arundinacea

Reed canarygrass

Nonnative

x

x

x

x

x

x

Phleum pratense

Timothy grass

Nonnative

-

-

-

-

x

x

Phragmites australis 

Reed phragmites

Nonnative

-

-

-

x

-

-

Plantago lanceolata

English plantain

Nonnative

x

x

x

x

x

x

Plantago major

Broadleaf plantain

Nonnative

x

x

x

x

-

-

Poa pratensis

Kentucky bluegrass

Nonnative

x

x

x

x

x

x

Potentilla reptans

Five finger grass

Nonnative

x

x

-

-

-

-

Pyrus calleryana

Callery pear tree

Nonnative

x

-

-

-

-

-

Ranunculus acris

Tall buttercup

Nonnative

-

x

-

-

-

-

Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum

Mountain watercress

Nonnative

-

-

-

-

x

-

Rosa multiflora

Multiflora rose

Nonnative

-

-

-

-

x

-

Rubus idaeus

Red raspberry

Nonnative

-

-

-

x

x

-

Rumex acetosella

Field sorrel

Nonnative

-

-

-

x

x

-

Rumex obtusifolius

Broadleaf dock

Nonnative

x

x

-

x

x

-

Rumex crispus

Curlydock

Nonnative

-

x

x

x

x

x

Setaria faberi

Giant foxtail

Nonnative

-

-

-

-

x

-

Setaria viridis

Green foxtail

Nonnative

-

-

-

x

-

-

Silene latifolia

White campion

Nonnative

x

-

-

-

x

x

Sonchus avrensis

Perennial sowthistle

Nonnative

-

-

-

-

x

x

Thlaspi arvense

Water pennycress

Nonnative

x

x

-

-

x

-

Tragopogon dubius

Western salsify

Nonnative

-

-

-

x

x

x

Tragopogon pratensis

Meadow salsify

Nonnative

x

x

x

x

x

x

Trifolium campestre

Low hop clover

Nonnative

-

-

-

x

-

-

Trifolium pratense

Red clover

Nonnative

x

x

x

x

x

x

Trifolium repens

White clover

Nonnative

x

-

x

x

x

x

Typha angustifolia

Narrow-leaved cattail

Nonnative

-

x

x

x

x

x

Verbascum blattaria

Moth mullein

Nonnative

-

-

x

-

-

-

Verbascum thapsus

Common mullein

Nonnative

x

x

x

x

x

x

Veronica arvensis

Corn speedwell

Nonnative

x

-

-

x

x

-

Vicia villosa

Hairy vetch

Nonnative

x

-

-

-

x

-

Vitis riparia

River bank grape

Nonnative

x

x

x

x

x

x

 

Journal Recent Articles