Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and ApplicationsSubmit Manuscript on this topic
Useful energy which is derived from natural resource is known as renewable energy. The source of renewable energy is wind, rain, sun light, tide, wave and geothermal heat. Renewable energy contributions are approx 20% of global energy consumption. They are also fulfilling approx 25% electricity generation.
Amount of energy which are emitted by the sun radition. As we know that sunlight is a part of eletromagnetic radition trasmitted by the sun in the form of infrared, visible and ultraviolet rays (light). This is one of the useful source which we are technically using as an useful source of energy. Our solar pannel completly work on this radition only to generate electricity.
Solar Energy (Thermal and Electrical)
Solar energy is one of the naturally occuring renwable energy resources which is primarily emitted from sun. Diffirent techniques like solar cells are used to transform the solar radiation into useful energy. The earth approximately receives 174,000 terawhatts of energy through this source in the form of thermal and electrical energy.
Wind Energy is the energy that is extracted from the wind using mechanical turbines. Even though it is a renewable energy resource. The contribution of wind energy vary between diffirent years. Hence efficient power management techinques is followed to harvest maximum energy when there is excess wind and it can be used to compentiate when wind mill production is low.
In hydro energy we use water turbines to extract the energy from the flowing water. Most hydroelectric power plants will collect the water in dams or other reservoir from which the water is allowed to pour through a turbine, rotating it while it flows. This machanical energy is then converted to electrical energy. Another techinque instead of dam is to channal the water into a narrow path through the water turbine.
Modern Biomass Biofuel
Biomass energy refers to the type of energy that are derived from living organism and plants. These types of energy are called as lignocellulosic biomass. In biomass energy we will extract the energy directly by combustion which produce heat. Where as biofuels are produced through the process of anaerobic digestion in which products such as soy, corn, sugarcane etc are fermented by microorganisms to produce useful gases like methane, butane, ethanol, etc. which are consider as Biofuel and it is one of the major source of energy. e.g: Biodiesel.
Petrolium and Petrochemistry
Petroleum is formed when biological materials are burred under sedimentary rocks where they are subjected to immunse pressure and heat over a long time in which the living matter is converted to petroleum. Petroleum consists of hydrocarbons that differ in their molecular weight. petrochemicals are usually obtained from petroleum but also from other sources like natural gas or coal and also from renewable energy sources like sugarcane and corn.
Corbon di oxide mitigation primarily deals with maintaining the level of CO2 in the atmosphere. Since humans are consuming more energy through carbon sources, we leave carbon-di-oxide as a by product. When the level of atmospheric CO2 increases beyond certain range it could have serious impact on climate change. The level of CO2 can be reduced effectively through reforestation.
The energy which are produced from natural renewable energy resources are called clean energy because the emit very less or no green house gases and they are renewable. Few of the clean energy resources are solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy.
Hydrogen and Biodiesel
Bio-diesel is obtained from animal fat or vegetable oil. It consist of long chain fatty acid which are usually mono-alkyl ester. The bio-diesels are produced by a process known as transesterification. During this process from vegetable oil we will remove glycerin which will form methyl ester (i.e) bio-diesel and glycerin. The bio-diesel can be used alone but often it is combined with a small proportion of other additives.