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Earth science or geosciences is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. The discipline of Earth sciences may include the study of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, oceans, and biosphere, as well as the solid Earth. This topic provides an open access platform deals with the origin, structure, and physical phenomena of earth and its parts, effect of disasters.
The atmospheric chemistry is defined as the study of chemical composition of the natural atmosphere where there is an interaction between gases, liquids, and solids and with the earth's surface and how human activities affect the environment in terms of chemical and physical characteristics of the atmosphere.
Earth science is a widely inclusive term alluding to the fields of science dealing with planet Earth. It can be thought to be a branch of planetary science, yet with a much more established history.
Ecology is a scientific term used to study the interactions between organisms and their respective environment. It is an interdisciplinary field that embraces biology and Earth science. Ecology can be defined as the study of interactions among organisms, and with other organisms, and with abiotic components of their sustained surroundings.
Geochemistry is the science that studies the mechanisms underlying the geological systems such as Earth’s crust and its oceans using the principles of chemistry.
Geoscience is the study of critical issues like meteorology, energy, water and mineral resources, oceanography, stewardship of the environment, planetary science reducing natural hazards for society.
Geostatistics deals with the branch of statistics considering spatial or spatiotemporal datasets. It is developed initially to predict probability distributions of ore grades for mining operations. It is currently used in different disciplines including petroleum geology, hydrology, meteorology, and hydrogeology.
Atmospheric inversions are horizontal layers of air that increase in temperature with height. Such warm, light air often lies over air that is cooler and heavier. As a result the air has a strong vertical stability , especially in the absence of strong winds.Atmospheric inversions play an important role in air quality . They can trap air pollutants below or within them, causing high concentrations in a volume of air that would otherwise be able to dilute air pollutants throughout a large portion of the troposphere.
Chemical oceanography is the study of ocean chemistry: the behavior of the chemical elements within the Earth's oceans. The ocean is unique in that it contains - in greater or lesser quantities - nearly every element in the periodic table.
Disaster Science deals with any catastrophic event that is caused by nature or the natural processes of the earth. The severity of a disaster is measured in lives lost, economic loss, and the ability of the population to rebuild. Events that occur in unpopulated areas are not considered disasters. So a flood on an uninhabited island would not count as a disaster, but a flood in a populated area is called a natural disaster.
Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in the crystalline solids (see crystal structure).The structure configuration of different of different minerals brings a new area of research in light. Minerals like
halite, diamond, fluorite and calcite are studied under X-ray diffraction, Crystallography etc.
Biosphere is defined as the biological component of earth systems, which includes the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and other spheres like cryosphere, anthrosphere etc. The biosphere comprises all living organisms on earth, together with the dead organic matter produced by them.
Gemology is the study of science that deals with natural and artificial gems and gemstones. It is viewed as a geoscience and a branch of mineralogy. Some jewelers are trained gemologists academically and are qualified to recognize and assess gems.
Geomorphology is defined as the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric elements made by physical or chemical processes operating at or near the earth's surface.
Glaciology is the study of ice in the environment. Important components are seasonal snow, sea ice, glaciers, ice sheets and frozen ground. The extent of these types of ice reflects the present and past climate.
Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals.
Geochronology is the study to determine the age of rocks, fossils, and sediments using signatures inherent in the rocks themselves. Absolute geochronology can be accomplished through radioactive isotopes, whereas relative geochronology is determined by tools such as palaeomagnetism and stable isotope ratios.
Geomicrobiology can be defined as the combination of geology and microbiology. It is concerned with the role of microbe and microbial processes in geological and geochemical processes and vice versa. The field is particularly important when dealing with microorganisms in aquifers and public drinking water supplies.
Atmosphere is the gaseous envelope surrounding the Earth. The dry atmosphere consists almost entirely of nitrogen (78.1% volume mixing ratio) and oxygen (20.9% volume mixing ratio), together with a number of trace gases, such as argon (0.93% volume mixing ratio), helium, radiatively active greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (0.035% volume mixing ratio), and ozone. In addition the atmosphere contains water vapor, whose amount is highly variable but typically 1% volume mixing ratio. The atmosphere also contains clouds and aerosols.